Classical Period Essay

Click here to ditch your cable subscription and get Over 3500 TV Channels! Greek Drama got its start from an ancient festival called Dionysian. “At Dionysian, Greeks would celebrate their God of wine, Dionysus, by drinking wine and having short plays” (Electronics). These short plays eventually developed into what is now considered Greek Drama. Greek Drama was meant to be used as a form of communication towards the people of Greece to get messages across that would not normally be talked about in day-to-day conversation. “Greek Drama helped to explain events in Greek society’ (Electronics).

These plays would help an audience to comprehend certain events depicted in the play. With their newfound knowledge, they could have a better understanding of certain political aspects of their life and other aspects as well. “Greek Drama employed many characteristics to help convey its message” (Electronics). Characteristics used by the Greek playwrights included catharsis, hematite, and Cambodia. With the use of these characteristics an audience could be easily persuaded to view things in the way the playwright viewed them.

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Therefore, these examples show that the nature of Greek Drama helped explain many details of Greek society. Read more in Topical В« 14 Amazing Literary Research Tools Comparative Essay: Made and Antigen h Greek Comedy used humor as a way of getting points and ideas across to the audience. “Satire and body humor were used as a means of communicating the message of the play in a humorous manner (Electronics). Satire and body humor were a common part of any Greek Comedy. They helped lighten the tension the audience may have been feeling during a particularly serious scene of the play.

Wit was also an important part of any Greek Comedy. “Greek Comedy makes fun of human flaws with irony and wit” (Electronics). The use of irony and wit often made a play seem like it was dealing with a less serious matter than it actually was. Irony could be used to make the death of someone seem hilarious. A good example of a Greek Comedy which outlines all of these traits is Illustrate. Mahatma is it all about? ‘ ‘About a big affair’ ‘And is it thick too? ‘ ‘Yes indeed, both big and great. ‘ ‘And we are not all on the spot! “‘ (Aristotelian 2).

This situation shows humor while talking about the serious subject of war and peace. This would lighten the mood of any audience watching the play while talking about such a serious matter, thus does Illustrate fall into the genre of Greek Comedy. Illustrate also shows comedy between the characters while talking about a means to end the war. “Refrain from what? Tell us, tell us! ‘ ‘But will you do it? ‘ ‘We will, we will, though we should die of it. ‘ ‘We must refrain from the male altogether… Nay, why do you turn your backs on me? (Aristotelian 7).

This shows humor because the women are willing to refrain from anything, except for sex. This is a clever use of irony by Aristotelian and helps to clearly classify Illustrate as a Greek Comedy. Clearly, clever use of satire, body humor, irony, and Wit, are all what aka up a great Greek Comedy. Click here to ditch your cable subscription and get over 3500 Channels! Greek Tragedy uses many mechanisms to make the audience feel like they are an actual part of the play and feel sorry for the characters as if they know them. One mechanism implemented by Greek playwrights was Hematite. Hematite is an error in judgment that leads to the tragic hero’s demise” (Electronics). Many Greek Tragedies used Hematite to show how a quality that makes someone great can also lead to their demise. Hematite is also known as the tragic flaw. This quality of a Greek Tragedy is most often used n the tragic hero to show that what once made him great has lead to his downfall. “Dramatists presented their audience with deeply troubling emotional issues as they publicly examined the worst and most hidden fears of the individual” (definition of Greek Tragedy).

Deeply troubling emotional issues are what make a Greek Drama a Greek Drama. Without these issues, the tragic hero would have no way to be brought down and thus, there would be no Greek Tragedy. Greek Tragedy can be best represented by Antigen. “You made your choice, to live ; I mine, to die” (Sophocles 21). This shows Antigen in a tragic sense because Antigen’s tragic flaw, ambitiousness, is what makes her choose to die and it is her downfall. Her ambitiousness made her great when she chose to bury her brother but it eventually killed her. Antigen is a great example of a Greek Tragedy. None may bewail, none bury, all must leave unwept, unsheltered, a dainty prize for fowl that watch, gloating upon their prey! ” (Antigen 2). Antigen is told that she may not bury her brother as he was the enemy. She is presented with a deeply troubling emotional issue because she has an obligation to bury her brother, yet she is not allowed to by the law. The aforementioned qualities certainly show what a Greek Tragedy was to be composed of. Through their use of Comedy and Tragedy in Greek Drama, Greek playwrights show how plays can be used as a useful tool in the persuasion of an audience, whether it is in the comedic or tragic form.

Surely, this shows the true power Of Greek Drama. Greek Drama will forever hold a place in history as one of the greatest feats of ancient civilization Comedy and Tragedy Comedy According to Aristotle (who speculates on the matter in his Poetics), ancient comedy originated with the Samos, a curious and improbable spectacle in which a company of festive males apparently sang, danced, and cavorted rollickingly around the image of a large phallus. (If this theory is true, by the way, it gives a whole new meaning to the phrase “stand-up routine. ) Accurate or not, the linking of the origins of comedy to sore sort of phallic ritual or festival of mirth seems both plausible and appropriate, since for most of its history?from Aristotelian to Sniffed–comedy has involved a high-spirited celebration of human sexuality and the triumph of Eros. As a rule, tragedies occur on the battlefield or in a palace’s great hall; a more likely eating for comedy is the bedroom or bathroom. On the other hand, it’s not true that a film or literary work must involve sexual humor or even be funny in order to qualify as a comedy. A happy ending is all that’s required.

In fact, since at least as far back as Aristotle, the basic formula for comedy has had more to do with conventions and expectations of plot and character than with a requirement for lewd jokes or cartoonist pratfalls. In essence: A comedy is a story of the rise in fortune of a sympathetic central character. The comic hero Of course this definition doesn’t mean that the main character in a comedy as to be a spotless hero in the classic sense. It only means that she (or he) must display at least the minimal level of personal charm or worth of character it takes to win the audience’s basic approval and support.

The rise of a completely worthless person or the triumph of an utter villain is not comical; it’s the stuff of gothic fable or dark satire. On the other hand, judging from the qualities displayed by many of literature’s most popular comic heroes (e. G. , Falstaff, Yuck Finn) audiences have no trouble at all pulling for a likeable rogue or fun-loving scamp. Aristotle suggests that comic figures are mainly “average to below average” in terms of moral character, perhaps having in mind the wily servant or witty knave who was already a stock character of ancient comedy.

He also suggests that only low or ignoble failures can strike us as ridiculous. However, the most ridiculous characters are often those who, although well-born, are merely pompous or self-important instead of truly noble. Similarly, the most sympathetic comic figures are frequently plucky underdogs, young men or women from humble or disadvantaged backgrounds who prove their real worth?in effect their “natural nobility”- wrought various tests of character over the course of a story or play. Ordinary People Traditionally, comedy has to do with the concerns and exploits Of ordinary people.

The characters of comedy therefore tend to be plain, everyday figures (e. G. , lower or middle-income husbands and wives, students and teachers, children and parents, butchers, bakers, and candlestick-makers ) instead of the kings, queens, heroes, plutocrats, and heads of state who form the dramatist personae of tragedy. Comic plots, accordingly, tend to be about the kind of problems that ordinary people are typically involved with: winning new boyfriend (or reclaiming an old one), succeeding at a job, passing an exam, getting the money needed to pay for a medical operation, or simply coping with a bad day.

Again, the true hallmark of comedy isn’t always laughter. More often, it’s the simple satisfaction we feel when we witness deserving people succeed. Types of Comedies Comedies can be separated into at least three subordinate categories or sub-genres?identified and briefly characterized as follows: Farce. The identifying features of farce are zaniness, slapstick humor, and hilarious improbability. The characters of farce are typically fantastic or absurd and usually far more ridiculous than those in other forms of comedy.

At the same time, farcical plots are often full of wild coincidences and seemingly endless twists and complications. Elaborate comic intrigues involving deception, disguise, and mistaken identity are the rule. Examples of the genre include Shakespearean Comedy of Errors, the “Pink Panther” movies, and the films of the Marx Brothers and Three Stooges. Romantic Comedy. Perhaps the most popular of all comic forms–both on stage and on screen–is the romantic comedy. In this genre the primary distinguishing feature is a love plot in which two sympathetic and well-matched lovers are united or reconciled.

In a typical romantic comedy the two lovers tend to be young, likeable, and apparently meant for each other, yet they are kept apart by some complicating circumstance (e. G. , class differences, parental interference; a previous girlfriend or boyfriend) until, surmounting all obstacles, they are finally wed. A wedding-bells, fairy-tale-style happy ending is practically mandatory. Examples:Much Ado about Nothing, Walt Disney’s Cinderella, Guys and Dolls, Sleepless in Seattle. Satirical Comedy. The subject of satire is human vice and folly.

Its characters include constraints, criminals, tricksters, deceivers, wheeler-dealers, two-timers, hypocrites, and fortune-seekers and the gullible dupes, knaves, goofs, and cuckolds who serve as their all-too-willing victims. Satirical comedies resemble other types of comedy in that they trace the rising fortune of a central character. However, in this case, the central character (like virtually everybody else in the play or story) is likely to be cynical, foolish, or morally corrupt. Examples: Orchestration’s The Birds, Ben Son’s Pollen. In its most extreme forms (e. G. He moviegoers and Pulp Fiction), satirical comedy spills over into so- called Black comedy–where we’re invited to laugh at events that are mortifying or grotesque. Tragedy In essence, tragedy is the mirror image or negative of comedy. For instead of depicting the rise in circumstances of a dejected or outcast underdog, tragedy shows us the downfall of a once prominent and powerful hero. Like comedy, tragedy also supposedly originated as part of a religious ritual?in this case a Dionysian ceremony with dancers dressed as goats or animals (hence tragedy, literally a “goat-song) pantomiming the suffering or death- birth of a god or hero.

Aristotelian Tragedy. Once again, the most influential theorist of the genre is Aristotle, whose Poetics has guided the composition and critical interpretation of tragedy for more than two millennia. Distilling the many penetrating remarks contained in this commentary, we can derive the following general definition: Tragedy depicts the downfall of a basically good person through some fatal error or misjudgment, producing suffering and insight on the part of the protagonist and arousing pity and fear on the part of the audience.

To explain this definition further, we can state the following principles or mineral requirements for Aristotelian tragedy: A true tragedy should evoke pity and fear on the part of the audience. According to Aristotle, pity and fear are the natural human response to spectacles of pain and suffering–especially to the sort of suffering that can strike anybody at any time. Aristotle goes on to say that tragedy effects “the catharsis of these emotions”–in effect arousing pity and fear only to purge them, as when we exit a scary movie feeling relieved or exhilarated.

The tragic hero must be essentially admirable and good. As Aristotle points out, the fall of a scoundrel or villain evokes applause rather than pity. Audiences cheer when the bad guy goes down. On the other hand, the downfall of an essentially good person disturbs us and stirs our compassion. As a rule, the nobler and more truly admirable a person is, the greater will be our anxiety or grief at his or her downfall. In a true tragedy, the hero’s demise must come as a result of some personal error or decision.

In other words, in Aristotle view there IS no such thing as an innocent victim of tragedy, nor can a genuinely tragic downfall ever be purely a matter of blind accident or bad luck. Instead, authentic tragedy must always be the product of some fatal hooch or action, for the tragic hero must always bear at least some responsibility for his own doom. Critical Terms Misdiagnosis (“tragic recognition or insight”): according to Aristotle, a moment of clairvoyant insight or understanding in the mind of the tragic hero as he suddenly comprehends the web of fate that he has entangled himself in.

Hamster (“tragic error”): a fatal error or simple mistake on the part of the protagonist that eventually leads to the final catastrophe. A metaphor from archery, hamster literally refers to a shot that misses the bullies. Hence it need not be an egregious ‘fatal flaw” (as the ERM hamster has traditionally been glossed). Instead, it can be something as basic and inescapable as a simple miscalculation or slip-up. Hubris (“violent transgression”): the sin par excellence of the tragic or over, aspiring hero.

Though it is usually translated as pride, hubris is probably better understood as a sort of insolent daring, a haughty overstepping of cue Trial codes or ethical boundaries. Nemesis (“retribution”): the inevitable able punishment or cosmic payback for acts of hubris. Peripatetic (“plot reversal”): a pivotal or crucial action on the part of the protagonist that hangers his situation from seemingly secure to vulnerable. Hegelian Tragedy More than two thousand years after Aristotle Poetics, the German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831) proposed his own original and highly influential theory of tragedy.

Unlike Aristotle, who defines tragedy in terms of specific requirements of plot and character, Hegel defines it as, at bottom, a dynamic contest between two opposing forces–in effect, a collision or conflict of rights. According to this scheme, the most tragic events are those in which two esteemed values or goals are in opposition and one of them must vie way. For instance, suppose in a particular case we find ourselves torn between our private conscientious opinions or religious beliefs and our legitimate duties and obligations to the state.

Such would be the circumstance, for example, of a conscientious objector facing military service. And such indeed is the situation of Sophocles play Antigen, whose title heroine finds herself caught between her religious and family obligations and her duties as a public citizen. In essence, then, a properly constructed Hegelian tragedy involves a situation in which two rights or values are in fatal inflict. Thus it is not (strictly speaking) tragic when good defeats bad or when bad defeats good. From Hedge’s point of view, the only tragic confrontation is one in which good is up against good and the contest is to the death.

Revenge Tragedy There remains one further species of tragedy to define and analyze? namely, revenge tragedy, a type that originated in ancient Greece, reached its zenith of popularity in Renaissance London, and which continues to thrill audiences on the silver screen today. In general, revenge tragedy dramatists the predicament of a wronged hero. A typical scenario is as allows: Your daughter has been brutally raped and murdered; but because of legal technicalities, the killer is allowed to go free. What do you do? Stoically endure your pain? Or take justice into your own hands?

Examples of the revenge theme abound in Greek tragedy (e. G. , Agamemnon, Made) and in Elizabethan drama (Hamlet, Titus Androgenic). The theme is also illustrated in numerous Hollywood westerns and crime thrillers (e. G. , Death Wish). Rasa (aesthetics) From Wisped, the free encyclopedia Performing the Sharing Rasa in Estimation A Rasa (Sanskrit: lit. ‘juice’ or ‘essence’) denotes an essential mental state ND is the dominant emotional theme of a work of art or the primary feeling that is evoked in the person that views, reads or hears such a work.

Although the concept of Rasa is fundamental to many forms of Indian art including dance, music, musical theatre, cinema and literature, the treatment, interpretation, usage and actual performance of a particular Rasa differs greatly between different styles and schools of banana, and the huge regional differences even within one style. Contents [hide] 1 Elements 1. 1 Universal 1. 2 Performing Arts 1. 2. 1 Behaves 2 Influence on cinema 3 See also 4 References [edit]Elements Barbara Mini enunciated the eight Arras in the Intrastate, an ancient work of dramatic theory, written during the period between 200 BC and 200 AD.

Each Rasa, according to Intrastate, has a presiding deity and a specific color. There are 4 pairs of arras. For instance, Hasty arises out of Sardinia. The Aura of a frightened person is black, and the aura of an angry person is red. Barbara Mini established the following. [l ] Seagram (ART©) Love, Attractiveness. Presiding deity: Vishnu. Color: light green. Hussy (orzo) Laughter, Mirth, Comedy. Presiding deity: Primate. Color: white. Eardrum (ј Fury. Residing deity: Ruder. Color: red. Grumpy (Quit¶’њUzi) Compassion, Tragedy. Presiding deity: Yam. Color: grey. Bathmats Disgust, Aversion.

Presiding deity: Shiva. Color: blue Banana (–DITZ˜ Horror, Terror. Presiding deity: Kola. Color: black Viral Heroic mood. Presiding deity: Indri. Color: yellowish Deadbeat (a-1*) Wonder, Amazement. Presiding deity: Brahmas. Color: yellow [edit]Universal Buenaventura suggested a ninth Rasa when only eight were accepted and it had to undergo a good deal of struggle between the sixth and the tenth centuries, before it could be accepted by the majority of the Landmark’s, and he expression Universal (the nine arras), could come into vogue. Santa Peace or tranquility. Deity: Vishnu.

Color: blue In addition to the nine Arras, two more appeared later (esp.. In literature): Additional arras: Vitally Parental Love Backbit (off) Spiritual Devotion However, the presiding deities, the colors and the relationship between these additional arras have not been specified. Eardrum Rasa of the destructive fury of goddess Durra in Fragmentary In the literary compositions, the emotion of Backbit as a feeling of adoration towards God was long considered only a minor feeling fit only for Soothers, UT not capable of being developed into a separate Rasa as the sole theme of a whole poem or drama.

In the tenth century, it was still struggling, and Zachary Buenaventura mentions Backbit in his commentary on the Natty Shasta, as an important accessory sentiment of the Shanty Rasa, which he strove with great effort to establish. However, just as Shanty slowly attained a state of primacy that it was considered the Rasa of Arras, Backbit also soon began to loom large and despite the lukewarmly of the great run of Landmark’s, had the service of some distinguished advocates, unconstitutionally.

It is the Vagrant that gave the great impetus to the study of Backbit from an increasingly aesthetic point of view. A Rasa is the developed relievable state of a permanent mood, which is called Asthma Behave. This development towards a relievable state results by the interplay on it of attendant emotional conditions which are called Behaves, Anabases and Sanitaria Behaves. Behaves means Karen or cause: it is of two kinds – Alhambra, the personal or human object and substratum, and Daphnia, the excitant’s.

Navaho, as the name signifies, means the unguents or effects following the rise of the emotion. Sanitaria Behaves are those crossing feelings which are ancillary to a permanent mood. Eight more emotional features are to be added, namely, the Swastika Behaves. [2] [edit]Performing Arts In the Indian performing arts, a Rasa is an emotion inspired in an audience by a performer. They are described by Barbara Mini in the Intrastate, an ancient work of dramatic theory. Arras are created by behaves: the gestures and facial expressions of the actors.

CA] Expressing Rasa in classical Indian dance form is referred to as Rasa-banana. The Intrastate carefully delineates the behaves used to create each Rasa The theory of arras still forms he aesthetic underpinning of all Indian classical dance and theatre, such as Fragmentary, Kathy, Occupied, Odious, Maniple, Judicatory, Catskill and others. The expressions used in Judicatory or Catskill are extremely exaggerated theatrical expressions. The opposite of this interpretation is Blameworthiness school of subtle and understated banana of the advises.

There were serious public debates when Playwrights condemned Raking Devil’s Puritanism interpretations and applications of Sardinia Rasa. The banana of attenuator style of banana remains extremely rich in variations of the emotions, while he panhandler style expressions are more limited in scope. [edit]Behaves The Intrastate identifies eight arras with eight corresponding Behave (mood): Rata (Love) Hasty (Mirth) Soak (Sorrow) Kronor(Anger) tussah (Energy) Bay (Terror) Eggcups (Disgust) Visalia (Astonishment) [edit]lenience on cinema Rasa has been an important influence on the cinema of India.

The Rasa method of performance is one of the fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema from that of the Western world. In the Rasa method, empathetic “emotions are conveyed by the performer and thus felt by the audience,” in contrast to the Western Statisticians teeth where the actor must become “a living, breathing embodiment of a character” rather than “simply conveying emotion. ” The Rasa method of performance is clearly apparent in Malaysia Cinema and internationally- acclaimed parallelizing films directed by Satiate Ray.

The latter is indebted to the Rasa method of classical Sanskrit drama, in the sense that the complicated doctrine of Rasa “centers predominantly on feeling experienced not only by the characters but also conveyed in a certain artistic way to the spectator. The duality of this kind of a Rasa imbrications” shows in The App Trilogy (1955-1959), which itself has had a large influence on world cinema. [4] THEATRE OF ATHENIAN STATE The theatre of Ancient Greece, or ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece between 550 BC and 220 BC.

The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political, and military power during this period, was its centre, where it wasinstitutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysian, which honored the god Dionysus. Tragedy (late 6th century BC), comedy (486 SC), and the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Athens exported the festival to its numerous colonies and allies in order to promote a common cultural identity. Western theatre originated in Athens and its drama has had a significant and sustained impact on Western culture as a whole.

Martin Litchis West speculates that early studies in Greek religion and theatre, which are inter-related, especially the Orphic Mysteries, was heavily influenced by Central Asian chemotherapeutics. A large number of Orphic graffiti unearthed in Labia seems to testify that the colony was one major point of contact. [3] Eli Razor[4] points out that the shaman, as such, is men as a prototypical actor influencing the rituals of early Greek theatre. Panoramic view of the theatre at Epidural.

Greek tragedy as we know it was created in Athens some years before 532 BC, when Thesis was the earliest recorded actor. Being a winner of the first theatrical contest held at Athens, he was technocrat, or leader,[6] of the diathermy’s performed in and around Attica, especially at the relationship. By Thesis’ time the diathermy had evolved far away from its cult roots. Under the influence of heroic epic, Doric choral lyric and the innovations of the poet Orion, it had become a narrative, ballad-like genre.

Because of these, Thesis is often called the “Father of Tragedy”; however, his importance is disputed, and Thesis is sometimes listed as late as 16th in the chronological order of Greek tragedians; the statesman Solon, for example, is credited with creating poems in which characters speak with their own voice, and spoken performances of Homer’s epics by rhapsodies were popular in festivals prior to 534 BC. [7] Thus, Thesis’s true contribution to drama is unclear at best, but his name has been amortized as a common term for performer?a “thespian. ” New inventions during the Classical Period


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