Chongqing: An Emerging Megacity
Chongqing is a city in central China that has seen a rapid increase in growth since the early 2000s (Xinhua Finance, 2016). This has helped to push China’s development inland as well as along its coasts. Many have realised, that with China’s rapid development, costs along central hubs at the coast are slowly increasing, and it is cheaper to now set up factories in rural areas with costs of construction being half the price of coastal comparisons and house prices are way below the coastal average (Ijjasz-Vasquez, 2018)
Growth has increased by 14% annually since 2007, which is ~6% above Chinas average (Xinhua Finance, 2016). This has been assisted by the mass investment in transport and SEZs inland (Internships China, 2016). A direct train line was set up between Chongqing and Germany in 2010, opening up the area to car manufacturing (Ijjasz-Vasquez, 2018). Two thirds of laptops are now produced in Chongqing as many major foreign high-tech firms have moved to the area due to its economic attractiveness (Brown, 2009). It is producing high tech goods so as to try and jump the “developmental” stage that most megacities have to go through, gaining a high return on investment (Brown, 2009). Chongqing’s GDP is currently the same size as Thailand’s combined (Ijjasz-Vasquez, 2018).
Areas such as Chongqing are helping to eliminate some of the economic problems caused by the coastal concentration of development in China which diminished the differences between rural and urban inequalities and household incomes.
The Geography of Economic Power: Consequences to People and Places
Leeds saw a dominant industry in wool during the time of the Industrial Revolution, along with high rates of production in other industries such as printing and iron (Burt and Grady, 1994). Leeds industrial strength saw a surge in factory construction, and much of Leeds development relied on an inflow of Jewish migrants (Leeds City Council, 2015). However, foreign competition was too strong by the 1970s and left many of Leeds industries, especially the manufacturing of clothing, in decline (Burt and Grady, 1994). The majority of factories and mills in Leeds central district were left abandoned and derelict (Leeds City Council, 2015).
The area had gone into depression, the landscape left scarred. Regeneration plans were vital to save Leeds from the crippling period of deindustrialisation. By feeding money into service industries and rebuilding the city into a more migrant worker and student friendly place, Leeds was able to develop its financial sector in the 1990s (BBC, 2006). Local affluence has picked up in recent years and this led to an expansion in Leeds retail sector (Anon, 2009). As a result, Leeds is now the “retail capital of the North” with its latest openings of The Trinity Centre and Victoria Gate shopping centres. At present, 86% of employment in Leeds is within the service sector (Leeds City Council, 2015).
An issue with many brownfield sites that are seen abandoned along the river Aire which runs through the centre of Leeds, is that of contamination from industrial waste. With the recent regeneration of Leeds, companies attracted to the sites are now able to work alongside the local government and together can invest in converting and cleaning up the old contaminated brownfield sites into offices and housing. The council has confirmed that “the accommodation of nearly 20,000 homes will be provided by 2018 due to brownfield site clearing” (Dewar, 2017).
London – Kings Cross
Since 1952 when the station opened, Kings Cross has always had great links with Northern industrial cities (Kings Cross, n.d.). In the mid 19th century a considerable amount of housing was removed in order to make room for the world’s first underground system which opened in the 1963 (Kings Cross, n.d.).
Post wartime, most industries prominent in Kings Cross declined including the use of transport by rail (Kings Cross, n.d.). The area quickly changed from a roaring central industrial area to a derelict, unused wasteland (Kings Cross, n.d.). Trade for businesses was non-existent, all employment opportunities were lost, youngsters turned to crime and the area was riddled with poverty into the 1980s (Kings Cross, n.d.). The removal of housing also caused major overcrowding in neighbouring boroughs (Campkin, 2013) and the London smog which occurred from 1952 to 1962 was likely due to the polluted, hot atmosphere brought by the railways, causing major respiratory problems and further migration out of the area (Campkin, 2013).
However, change came in the late 1990s, when it was decided that the Channel Tunnel Rail Link would be moved to Kings Cross and in 2006 planning permission to completely regenerate the area was passed (Kings Cross, n.d.). It has now been converted into an area of central business and leisure, with “50 new buildings, 10 new public spaces, 2000 homes and a University” (Kings Cross, n.d.). It has been the greatest city centre regeneration in Europe (ULI, 2014).