Biology – Plants – Study Guide Essay

Understand that both plants and animals (eukaryote) undergo a similar process for cellular division/reproduction? Both plant and animal cells undergo mitosis and meiosis. In plants, there is an alternation of generations; the commemorate generation, where haploid gametes (pollen and ovule; sperm and egg) are produced via mitosis. Then the saprophyte generation combines these two into spores via meiosis, resulting in a diploid zygote which can grow into new cells. 2. Describe the sun as the ultimate source of energy for life?

Plants undergo the process of photosynthesis, where they absorb light energy and convert it into sugar. This process expels oxygen, which all living things require to survive. In addition, plants are a food, and hence an energy source, for many living creatures, making them essential in the food chain. 3. Describe the purpose, process, and chemical and energy components of photosynthesis and the source of each component (e. G. CA is found in the air)? Chloroplast cells in the palisade mesosphere absorbs light, which is then transferred to the reaction center.

Carbon dioxide in the air and water from within the plant combine, transferring electrons from water into carbon dioxide molecules in a process called oxidation reduction. 4. Understand the form and function of all parts of plant leaves and how they assist in the basic functions associated with plant life? The top layer of leaves are the waxy cuticle layer and the upper epidermis, which provide protection and prevents water loss. Below is the palisade mesosphere layer, composed of long column-like chloroplast cells which absorbs light to be used in photosynthesis.

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Xylem carries water and minerals, while phloem carries starches and nutrients to wherever needed; these two comprise the vascular bundle. Underneath is the spongy mesosphere layer, which is porous to allow for gas exchange, of carbon dioxide into oxygen during photosynthesis. The lower epidermis controls water loss, and on it are guard cells (stomata) which opens and closes to control transpiration (CA intake and water loss). 5. Understand transpiration and its importance to water transport? Transpiration is where carbon dioxide is inhaled and water is expelled. Describe what makes up roots and shoots and how they assist in water and nutrient transport? Roots anchor the plant in the soil and absorbs water. Stems also allow tort absorption, but they mainly provide support and a venue tort system of transport. 7. Describe the form and function of the xylem and phloem? The vascular 8. Know how different groups of plant reproduce and be able to describe why reproductive constraints can help determine plant habitat? (seed plants see above) Seedless plants fall under two categories; vascular and bryophytes.

Both reproduce y spores, which are spread by the wind. Vascular seedless plants, such as ferns, horsetails, and club mosses are able to grow tall because of their xylem/phloem system. Nonverbal bryophytes, on the other hand, are unable to grow too large, but can thrive in damp environments by absorbing water directly through their threadlike rhizome roots. When decayed, they form soil which can help other plants thrive. 9. Describe the basic similarities and differences between the reproductive processes of conifers and flowering plants?

Both conifers and flowering plants fall under the étagère of seed plants. While flowering plants hold their seeds in the receptacle, conifers hold seeds in their cones. To form seeds, the pollen from the anther of one flower is carried by insects, animals, or wind to the pistil of another flower, where it travels down the pistil tube to combine with the ovule. Gymnosperms don’t use animal/insect agents, instead using wind to transport pollen from male cones to the female seed cones. 10. Understand the form and function of the stomata and describe their role in water transport and gas exchange?

Stomata are openings in the lower epidermis that controls transpiration: the intake of CA and expelling of water that is necessary for photosynthesis. When open, it allows for high carbon dioxide uptake and high water loss. However, when the leaves water stores are low it closes to prevent water loss, thus reducing photosynthesis. 1 1 . State the parts of a flower and explain how their form and function serve in reproduction? One main reproductive part of a flower is the pistil/carpel – which encompasses the stigma, style, pistil tube, and ovule.

The style is a long stem that supports the stigma, which is a sticky top that pollen can land on and travel down the pistil tube into the ovary, which contains the ovule that is a plant’s female sex cell. Around the pistil is the stamen, with the anther that produces pollen as the male sex cells and the filament which supports the anther. The sepals and leaves around these parts provide protection. 12. Compare and contrast the levels of organization in animals and plants and provide examples of emergent properties from level to level?


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