The Biology of Mind Neuron Communication Neuron is a nerve cell, basic building block our nerve system Neurons consists in: Dendrites : neurons bushy branches and it listens Axons: Tube that passes the messages and it speaks – transmit Action potential : is a neural impulse, brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. Threshold: is the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Myelin Sheath covers an axon and some neurons Synapse : is the Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
Excitatory signal is pushing a neuron accelerator Inhibitory signal is like pushing a brake All-in-one-response is a neuron response to stimulation , meaning that the intensity of the stimulus determines whether is excitatory or Inhibitory . Neurotransmitters: is a chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. How do Neurotransmitters influences behavior? Influences on hunger and thinking, depression and euphoria, addiction and therapy . Neurotransmitters pathways : each of the brain’s differing chemicals messengers has designated pathways where its operates.
Serotonin Pathway : affects mood, hunger , sleep, and arouse Ex malfunction: underplays is linking to depression , Approach and some others anti depression drugs raises serotonin level Dopamine Pathway: Influences movements, learning attention and emotion. Ex malfunction: excessive Dopamine is linked to schizophrenia and absence tot dopamine the brain produces tremors and decrease mobility of Parkinson disease. Acetylene’s : enables muscle action, learning and memory. Ex malfunction: with Parkinson ‘s disease , Ach- producing , neurons deteriorate.
Morphogenesis : Helps control alertness and arouse . Ex malfunction: under supply an depress mood. Endorphins: Lessen pain and boost mood. Ex malfunction: If fooled w/ artificial opiates , the brain may stop producing endorphins , causing an intense discomfort. The nervous system Nervous system : the body speedy , electrochemical communication network , consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Peripheral nervous systems ( PAN) the sensory and motor neurons that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body Central nervous systems. CANS) the brain and the spinal cord Nerves bundle axons that form natural “cables ” connection the central nervous yester with muscles , glands , and sense organs. Sensory neurons carries incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord Motor neurons carries outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands. Interventions are neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicates internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs .
Somatic nervous system is the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body ‘s skeletal muscles. It is also called the skeletal nervous system Autonomic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system that controls our glands and our muscles of our internal organs influences functions as glandular activity , heart beat , and digestion. The autonomic nervous system is subdivided in 2 system: Sympathetic nervous system arouses and expends energy . F something alarms , enrages or challenges you , you SINS will accelerate your heartbeat, raise your blood pressure , slow your digestion, raise your b making you alert and ready for action sugar, cool you Witt perspiration, Parasympathetic nervous system produces the opposite effects. It conserves energy and calms you b decreasing your heart beat , lowering your blood sugar, The Central Nervous System Neural networks is the brains neurons cluster into a work groups. Reflex a simple . Automatic response too sensory stimulus , such as the knee-Jerk response.
Spinal cord in an information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system to the brain Endocrine system the body ‘s slow chemical communication system ; a set of glands that secretes hormones into the blood stream Hormones chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands , travel through bloodstream, and affect other tissues. * the endocrine system and the nervous system are close relatives: both produces molecules that act on receptors elsewhere. Adrenal glands a pair of endocrine glands that sit Just above the kidneys and secrete hormones ( epinephrine and morphogenesis ) that helps arouse the body in times of stress.
Pituitary glands the endocrine system ‘s most influential gland . Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and control other endocrine glands. The Brain Lesions is a tissue destruction . Destruction off brain tissue A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally cause Brainstem the oldest part and central core tot the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as its enter the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic arrival functions Electroencephalogram EGG is an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweeps across the brain’s surface.
These surfaces are measures by electrodes placed in the scalp. PET ( Positron emission tomography ) SCAN a visual display of the brain activity that detects where the radioactive for of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task MR. ( magnetic resonance imaging) a technique that uses magnetic field and radio waves to produce computer -generated images of soft tissue. MR. scans shows brain anatomy fem. ( function MR.) a technique for revealing blood flow and therefore , brain activity by comparing successive MR. scans. MR. scans shows brain function Medulla is the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing . Thalamus the brain’s sensory switchboard , located on top the brainstem ; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmit replies to the cerebellum and medulla Reticular formation a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role controlling arousal Cerebellum the “little brain” at the hear of the brainstem ; functions include some nonverbal learning , processing sensory input , and coordinating movements output and balance .
Limbic system neural system ( including the hippopotamus , amazedly, and hypothalamus ) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives. Our brain process most information outside of our awareness Hypothalamus is a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating , drinking, body temperature) helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotions and reward.
Amazedly two lima bean size neutral clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotions. Spinal cord is a pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain; controls impel reflexes Corpus calculus axon tellers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. Cerebral cortex: ultimate control and information processing center The Cerebral Cortex Cerebral cortex: the intricate fabric or interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemisphere; ultimate control and information processing center.
Frontal lobes: portion of the cerebral cortex lying Just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and Judgments Parietal Lobes : portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and towards the hear; receive sensory input for touch and body position. Occipital lobes: portion of the cerebral cortex at the back of the head; ; including areas that receive information from the visual field. Temporal lobes : portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears ; includes the auditory areas , each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
Motor Cortex : an area at the hear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements. Sensory cortex: area at the front of the parietal lobes that register and process body touch and movement sensations. Associate areas are areas of the cerebral of the cerebral cortex that are not involved n primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking , speaking and integrating information.
Aphasia impairment of language , usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Brooch’s areas ( impairing speaking) or to Wrinkle’s are ( impairing understanding ) Brooch’s area control language expression; and area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere , that directs the muscle movement involved in speech . Wrinkle’s area controls language reception; a brain area, usually in the left temporal obey, that is involved in language comprehension and expression.
Brain Plasticity Plasticity is the brain ‘s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. Neurosurgeons is the titration tot new neurons. Corpus calculus the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemisphere and carrying messages between them. Split brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemisphere by cutting the fibers ( mainly those of the corpus calculus ) connecting them.