Enzyme Catalane Investigation Aim: The aim of this investigation is to study and observe whether or not the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (varying from 10 – 30 millimeters) affects the rate of reaction. Hypothesis: With the increase of the concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide 3% substrate, I prediction that the rate of pressure increase will begin to amplify.
The pressure is bound to increase because the catalane quickly reacts with the hydrogen peroxide; this is why the more substrate that is added to the enzyme, the higher mount of pressure that there will be in the test tube. Independent Variable: The amount of hydrogen peroxide designated to be put into the test tube to be mixed with the enzyme is independent seeing as the scientist performing the experiment decides the amount that is to be added to the test tube.
Dependent Variable: The absolute pressure, in this particular experiment, is the dependent variable seeing as it is drastically affected by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. The variety of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide provokes a chemical reaction and can influence he absolute pressure (possibly making it increase as stated in the hypothesis). Controlled Variable: The temperature, in this specific investigation, is the controlled variable. The temperature needs to remain constant in order to acquire accurate and fair results and a continuous basis.
If the temperature is changing all the time, it is impossible to attain fair results seeing as the environment in which the experiment is taking place is interrupted. Analysis: Above is the set of data, which refers to the first test of 10 millimeters of hydrogen peroxide; this graph shows two clustered areas. Each trial ended between 105 and 108 units of absolute pressure which is a wide spread of data. The clustered areas are within the 105 and 108 range but nowhere else; this may be caused by an irregularity in the stirring process prior to the experiment.
Human error could have occurred with several elements of this experiment seeing as it was all handled by an inaccurate had prior to the reading of results. The results average out to 106. 5 units of absolute pressure however this is not an accurate assumption because of the massive range of results shown in the graph above. Although this is the lowest concentration, the results were some of the highest units of absolute pressure, which in theory means that the reaction in the enzyme was the largest.
Every run had a constant increase; even though the results were varied, the increase for each individual run was constant with itself excluding the two darker colored lines. The random change in pattern may nave been because tot a disruption in the experiment such as someone moving the beaker or even the tightness of the apparatus used to measure the results; the cork was an important aspect in the experiment and the erasure capture varied based on tightness. Seen above is the set of results attained through the tests of 30 millimeters of hydrogen peroxide being applied to the catalane enzyme.
These results were the most reliable out of the set of data because the method of mixing the peroxide in with the catalane was more consistent and the process that I repeated was more methodical rather than random. In science experiments it is vital to be consistent with methods in order to require accurate results. All the results ended in the range of 108 – 110 which is much more accurate than the other tests. Most of the lines intersect with each other, which is a clear sign of coherent results as well as a well performed continuous process.
The four tests that were run have the same trend of rising rapidly at the beginning and then slightly decreasing and then increasing constantly however there was a slight increase in every run towards the end of the test. In this particular test there were no faults with handling the equipment incorrectly; the results may have been more accurate because rather than a full 2 minute test, this specific set of runs was timed in intervals of 30 seconds which sibyl make the results look more accurate than they actually are; the specific details (rises and declines) have not been properly captured.
These set of tests, displayed above are representative of the 20 millimeters of hydrogen peroxide. Although this was the second highest concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the results were seemingly lower than the lowest concentration of 10 millimeters; this may be due to a number of factors ranging from a lack of accuracy in the first few tests. After realizing that my results were inaccurate during the first few tests, I hanged my methodology and decided to be more accurate and concise, being careful not to alter the positioning of the test tube during tests as well as the stirring process prior to the test.
These results vary between 105 and 107 units of absolute pressure revealing no certain pattern whatsoever besides the gradual increase at the beginning of the experiment. Due to the fact that the tests were measured in intervals, it is impossible to see the overall progression of the line, which would reveal more detail of the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the catalane. The results are tot as scattered as they were with the lowest concentration yet they still are distinguishable from each other.
Evaluation: Human Error – the main problem during this experiment was most likely the human error that was involved in the grand scheme of things. It was impossible to attain perfectly accurate results no matter what method was used on the computers or with the measuring apparatus. There were too many areas, which could change the results; for example, inserting the cork from the measuring device into the test tube required force and it is impossible to measure that force and perfectly incorporate that into every test. The tightness would vary no matter what was done and this was a problem that could not be prevented.
In addition to the problem of the cork, whenever the catalane and hydrogen peroxide were mixed together before the actual experiment took place, it was impossible to replicate the time the mixture of chemicals was stirred and at what rate it was stirred. It was impossible to measure perfect measurements because the human eye and hand cannot pinpoint and go down to the perfect millimeter when measuring the quantity of chemicals. Random Errors – the temperature in the room may not have been set seeing as the door was mutinously opening and closing and heat figures (other people) were entering and leaving.
Hands touching the test tube could change the temperature of the actual work-space. Besides that, I changed equipment on several occasions due to the malfunction of certain equipment. Every piece of equipment and the cork sizes were different which meant that the precision of the results may have differed and changed with the switch of apparatus. When washing the test tubes before another experiment, water would be applied and would essentially add itself to the solution meaning that the mixture of chemicals was partially diluted by water on several occasions.
If anything in this investigation could be improved, it would be to include machinery to measure the quantities of chemicals to the unit needed; this would eradicate any space for human error. I would make a machine apply everything into the test tubes and seal the cork in with the equal amount of force each time. The temperature would be set and in order to attain more accurate results, the amount of runs and tests actually performed would increase to hundreds to attempt to find consistently accurate data.
Conclusion: The hypothesis stated that with a higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the amount of absolute pressure would be higher. This hypothesis was proven partially correct because the highest concentration of 30 millimeters had the highest amount of pressure consistently whereas the lowest concentration of 10 millimeters showed some tests that it was the lowest. However, the lowest concentration of hydrogen peroxide also produced results higher than 20 millimeters of the solution meaning that there may have been an error or that this amount of hydrogen peroxide reacts more intensely to the catalane than the higher amount.
Nonetheless, this experiment could be improved and excluding some minor and major errors (water mixing with the solution to having to change apparatus) this experiment produced good results. To conclude, in order to attain more accurate results and investigate this matter further, higher quantities of hydrogen peroxide need to be used and this experiment needs to be done on a much larger scale with litters rather than millimeters; the reactions would be more obvious and more analysis could take place if proper and accurate results are attained.