Biology EEI: Catalase & Liver Essay

The reaction rate of an enzyme catalysts reaction under the effect of changes in temperature was Estes in this experiment. It was hypothesized that the tastes reaction rate would occur a 37 degrees Celsius. Liver and hydrogen peroxide were placed into 4 different test tubes, all set in different temperatures: O degrees Celsius; room temperature (28 – 30 degrees Celsius); 37 degrees Celsius; and 100 degrees Celsius. The results occurred as predicted, on graph they formed a semi-circle like shape.

The 37 degrees Celsius delivered the best result with the room heat giving a close comparison but the iced and boiling heat delivered minimal results. The results gathered were concurrent of the hypothesis. . 0 Introduction Homeostasis is the state of equilibrium in the body that maintains the internal environment [10]. Somatic and autonomic nervous systems ensure the body temperature and pH are kept at a stable level. The human body is very fragile and susceptible to fatal changes within the inner conditions.

A slight change in body temperature could cause irreversible reactions, if the person’s temperature dropped below thirty degrees they would die immediately. Sensory receptors emit nerve impulses in order for the organism to detect changes in the internal environment [10]. The nervous system deals with heart rate to ensure the organs are delivered the appropriate amount of blood [13]. Enzymes are constantly working as catalysts to trigger a chemical reaction in the body that can restore the proper internal environment [4]. Stimulus – A detectable change in the internal environment [10].

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Receptor – Identifies the change in the internal environment [10]. Input – Information that is carried on the afferent pathway to the control centre. The control centre then determines the correct response [10]. Output – Information that is sent from the control centre down the efferent pathway to the effectors molecules [10]. Effectors – A molecule that binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity [10]. Response – A response from the effectors that performs the appropriate action sent from the control centre to maintain homeostasis [10].

Afferent pathway – The afferent pathway carries nerve impulses toward the control centre [10]. Efferent pathway – The efferent pathway carries nerve impulses to the effectors molecules [10]. Positive and negative feedback allow for the control of homeostasis. They are the mechanisms that detect a change in the homeostasis and respond by either augmenting the original stimulus (positive), or by constraining it (negative) [10]. The appropriate response is determined by the receptor, input, control centre, output and effectors. The information (nerve impulses) are carried on the afferent and efferent pathways [10].

Enzymes are proteins that accelerate chemical reactions in cells, although they require a particular temperature and pH to operate at their optimum [5]. Enzyme activity is almost barely working at Co but it slowly increases until it reaches ICC as this is where the enzymes are working at full potential. After ICC the enzymes begin o slow down again until they stop functioning once the temperature goes beyond ICC. This can be further observed in a graph below. Figure 1 [5] Enzymes work with molecules to maintain the internal environment [4]. Enzymes can break down molecules or conjoin them to form new molecules [14].

Each enzyme is very specific as to what reaction it catalysts. Enzymes interact with molecules called substrates [14]. The substrate is a molecule which binds to an area of an enzyme called the active site [4]. The lock and key model and the induced fit model are theories that describe the enzyme-substrate interaction C 6] The lock and key model explains that the active site of an enzyme is specially shaped to fit specific enzymes [14]. The induced fit model explains that the active site of an enzyme and the substrate can adapt and morph to suit each other and attach [15].

Catalane is an enzyme that promotes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O) into water and oxygen [11]. Hydrogen peroxide can act as a mild oxidize agent, but in large doses, hydrogen peroxide is classed as being isotonic [11]. Therefore, without catalane, an excessive amount of hydrogen peroxide would accumulate inside the internal environment and cause fatal repercussions. Catalane is able to rapidly eliminate hydrogen peroxide to keep it at the optimum level [11]. The liver is able to decompose hydrogen peroxide enigmatically because it contains catalane [12].

One test tube of liver and one test tube of H2O was put into an ice bath. 8. One test tube of liver and one test tube of H2O was put into a warm water bath. 9. After 3 minutes, the H2O was poured into the corresponding tube of liver. 10. The reaction rate of each mixture was observed and recorded. [1] 5. 0 Results Temperature Reaction Rate (Speed of production of bubbles 1 – 5) Ice Water (O degrees Celsius) Room Heat (28 – 30 degrees Celsius) Warm Water Bath (37 degrees Celsius) 4. 5 Boiling Water (100 degrees Celsius) Figure 2 The table shows the reaction rates acquired from the different temperatures.

The liver and hydrogen peroxide that was heated to 37 degrees Celsius produced the best reaction rate. The iced liver and hydrogen peroxide gave little reaction. The liver and hydrogen peroxide in room heat gave a lesser reaction than the warm water, but the oxygen produced was still quite plentiful. The boiling water gave no reaction, as no bubbles were produced. Figure 3 The graph above shows the changes in temperature and how it affects the reaction rate. The graph peaks at 37 degrees Celsius and is at its minimum at 100 degrees Celsius.

Figure 4 This grape snows the comparison tot the deterrent temperature’s Y-axis displays the reaction rate on a scale of 1 – 5. 6. 0 Discussion reaction rates As seen in the results acquired from the catalane and liver experiment, the enzymes are least active in the boiling temperature and in the freezing temperature. The results gathered were concurrent of the predicted outcome. It was observed that the most oxygen was produced (fastest reaction rate) when the liver and hydrogen peroxide were put in the corresponding tube after sitting in a warm water bath for three minutes.

The liver and hydrogen peroxide that were mixed in room temperature had a similar reaction but not as much bubbles were produced. There was not a substantial difference between the room temperature result and the warm water bath result, but the bubbles formed from the warm water were Just more plentiful and rapider. The slight increase in temperature must have sped up the catalane allowing it to produce more oxygen, because as the temperature rises, the substrates will begin to move faster and collide more often, enabling the enzyme- substrate interaction to occur more frequently.

The temperature increase can only reduce better results until the peak temperature (37 degrees Celsius). As predicted, the boiling water did not cause any reaction and the iced water caused a very limited outcome. Only a few bubbles were produced from the iced water test due to the lack of energy caused from heat being able to speed up the enzymes. The temperature was far beyond the limit of 60 degrees Celsius, therefore the catalane could not operate. The results acquired in class were placed in a graph (graph 2), this diagram closely resembles the one designed for all enzymes (graph 1).

This assists in justifying the findings gathered within the class room. The method design for this experiment was very detailed and would enable anyone to be able to conduct this investigation. The two step process of the method could allow the comparison of any of the alternative temperature changes back to the first result acquired in room temperature at the start of the experiment. The anomaly found throughout the investigation was the amount of oxygen produced at room temperature. This was surprising as there was an insignificant amount of data to be found of this test being conducted in an uncontrolled environment.

To get even more extensive and reliable exults, the method could be repeated with many other animal livers. This could enable the comparison and Justification of certain results. Another way of ensuring the best results would have been to seal the test tubes to guarantee no gas is released before the reaction occurs. The stopwatch could have also been an inconsistency, as time could have elapsed while the liver and hydrogen peroxide were placed in the water and the starting of the clock. Another inconsistency was the exact amount of liver placed in the test tube.

There was no apparatus to measure the proportions of liver. A test should have been performed at 60 degrees Celsius to justify the theory of the enzymes discontinuing operating at that specific temperature. My experiment further Justifies the optimum temperature of the enzyme catalysts reaction of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide when interacted with liver. In order for the body’s state of equilibrium to be maintained, the internal environment surrounding the liver must be kept at 7. 0 Conclusion 7 degrees Celsius.

The data gathered at the conclusion of the experiment proved that hydrogen peroxide mixed with liver at 37 degrees Celsius produced the best reaction rate out of all other temperatures. This supports the hypothesis predicted before the experiment began. Although there were some inconsistencies in the method, the results still gave evidence to support the predicted outcome. For the body to maintain homeostasis, the internal environment must be kept at 37 degrees Celsius. 8. 0 Appendix Figure 1 A graph showing the optimum temperature that an enzyme functions in.

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