Acknowledgements First of all, we would like to express our deepest appreciation to our Biology Semesters lecturer and supervisor who provided us the possibility to complete this proposal. A special gratitude we would like to give to Mr.. Shawn K. Mathematician, whose provided us a lot of valuable advice and suggestions, and helped us to coordinate our project proposal.
We would also like to express our gratitude towards him for showing us useful examples that related to this proposal that make us able to work efficiently, his willingness to motivate us and share his valuable time to discuss tit us have contributed tremendously to our project proposal. Thanks to the authority of AIMS University for providing us a peaceful and beautiful environment, with excellent facilities and high speed WIFE to make us able to complete this project in time.
To complete our project proposal, we had to use the WIFE connection in cafeteria and also AIMS library to do research related to the project proposal. Furthermore, thanks to our group members, who contributed their valuable time and money, showed their initiative to complete this project by doing their part in this project. Thank you to the group members, deeply from heart. Your cooperation and willingness to attend meetings and discussion, which made this project work done perfectly is very appreciated. Thanks to: 1. Mosses Pravda 2. Yap Y Ha 3.
Chem. Junk Seen 4. Leone Alai Ling 5. Chuan Yuan Inning 6. Tan Ann Joe 7. The Chining Wee Last but not least, we place a deep sense to gratitude to our family members and friends who provided us constant source of inspiration and help in terms of money and help during the entire time of the preparation of this project proposal. Thank you. 1. 0 INTRODUCTION Corn, or maize, in American English is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesospheric in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain the grain, which are seeds called kernels.
Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch. The practice of eating corn can be traced back to prehistorically time, and in modern world now, we have corn as one of our staple food, as main carbohydrate and mineral sources. Most of the western countries have corn cereal as breakfast, making it one of the most consumed food in the world. Here comes the problem, when we are consuming corn, only the kernel are being unconsumed while the corncob and the rest of the plant(corn stoves) will be disposed most of the time.
Interestingly, corncob and corn stoves are rich in cellulose, the vegetable fibers. The different arrangements of cellulose contribute to different types of fibers. The common examples of vegetable fibers that are widely used include cotton, hemp, Jute, flax, ramie, sisal, baggage, and banana. Surprisingly, the cellulose content of a corn stoves is up to 37. 4%, and the cellulose content for corncob is 39. 1%. Which means, there are great potential that we can turn maize plant into textile products.
From our research, Dextrose (corn sugar, commonly refer to C)-glucose in market name), a type of glucose is capable of producing Poly Lactic Acid (PLAN), a semi crystalline thermoplastic polymers, through a series of process. It can be used in a wide variety of applications, for examples, food service ware, fibers, and durables. This PLAN polymers is 100% renewable, biodegradable, which is better than the traditional petroleum derived polymers. In fact, PLAN is already exist in the market for a long time, but then corncobs and corn stoves, as a vast container of cellulose, is not being utilized well to produce PLAN.
Hence, in this proposal, we are going to extract cellulose and hydrology it into Dextrose using enzymes, and convert it into PLAN by fermentation, and lastly, make it into non-woven textiles. 1. 1 Maize plant Maize plant, is a tall plant that produces yellow seeds (called kernels) that are eaten as a vegetable, used to produce many t products, and used as t tort animals. (www. Learnersdictionary. Com) The maize plant is often 2. 5 m (8 Ft) in height, though some natural strains can grow 12 m (40 Ft) The stem has the appearance of a bamboo cane and is commonly composed of 20 intercedes of 18 CM (7 in) length.
A leaf grows from each node, which is generally 9 CM (3. 5 in) in width and 120 CM (4 Ft) in length ears develop above a few of the leaves in the midsection of the plant, between the stem and leaf sheath, elongating by 3 mm/day, to a length of 18 CM (7 in) (60 CM or 24 in being the maximum observed in the subspecies ). They are female inflorescence, tightly enveloped by several layers of ear leaves commonly called husks. Certain varieties of maize have been bred to produce many additional developed ears. These are the source of the “baby corn” used as a vegetable in Asian cuisine.
The apex of the stem ends in the tassel, an inflorescence of male flowers. When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel deices and release pollen. Maize pollen is amphibious (dispersed by wind), and because of its large settling velocity, most pollen falls within a few meters of the tassel. Elongated stigmas, called silks, emerge from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. They are often pale yellow and 7 in (178 mm) in length, like tufts of hair in appearance. At the end of each is a carpel, which may develop into a “kernel” if fertilized by a pollen grain.
The pericardia of the fruit is fused with the seed coat referred to as “carrycots”, typical of the grasses, and the entire kernel is often referred to as the “seed”. The cob is close too multiple fruit in structure, except that the individual fruits (the kernels) never fuse into a single mass. The grains are about the size of peas, and adhere in regular rows around a white, pithy substance, which forms the ear (maximum size of kernel in subspecies is reputedly 2. 5 CM/l in). An ear commonly holds 600 kernels. They are of various colors: blackish, bluish-gray, purple, green, red, white and yellow.
When ground into lour, maize yields more flour with much less bran than wheat does. It lacks the protein gluten of wheat and, therefore, makes baked goods with poor rising capability. A genetic variant that accumulates more sugar and less starch in the ear is consumed as a vegetable and is called sweet corn. Young ears can be consumed raw, with the cob and silk, but as the plant matures (usually during the summer months), the cob becomes tougher and the silk dries to inaudibility. By the end of the growing season, the kernels dry out and become difficult to chew without cooking them tender first in boiling water. Diagram 1 . Baby maize plant Diagram 1. 2 a maize plant Planting density affects multiple aspects of maize. Modern farming techniques in developed countries usually rely on dense planting, which produces one ear per stalk Stands of silage maize are yet denser, and achieve a lower percentage of ears and more plant matter. Maize is a facultative short-day plant and flowers in a certain number tot growing degree days > F) in the environment to which it is adapted. The magnitude of the influence that long nights have on the number of days that must pass before maize flowers is genetically prescribed and regulated by he photometer system.
Photoelectric can be eccentric in tropical cultivar such that the long days characteristic of higher latitudes allow the plants to grow so tall that they do not have enough time to produce seed before being killed by frost. These attributes, however, may prove useful in using tropical maize for befouls. Immature maize shoots accumulate a powerful antibiotic substance, 2,4-thyroid-7-methods-1 bonanza-3-one (DOMINO). DOMINO is a member of a group of hydrodynamic acids (also known as obnoxiousness) that serve as a natural defense against a wide range of pests, including insects, pathogenic fungi and bacteria.
DOMINO is also found in related grasses, particularly wheat. A maize mutant lacking DOMINO is highly susceptible to attack by aphids and fungi. DOMINO is also responsible for the relative resistance of immature maize to the European corn borer (family Crabbier). As maize matures, DOMINO levels and resistance to the corn borer decline. Because of its shallow roots, maize is susceptible to droughts, intolerant of nutrient-deficient soils, and prone to be uprooted by severe winds.
While yellow maize derive their color from eluted and examining, in red- lorded maize, the kernel coloration is due to anticipations and blasphemes. These latter substances are synthesized in the flavorings synthetic pathway from popularization of flan-4-oils by the expression of maize pericardia color (Pl) gene which encodes an RARE mob-like transcriptional activator of the AAA gene encoding for the dehydrogenation 4-reeducates (reducing dehydrogenation’s into flan-4-oils) while another gene (Suppressor of Pericardia Pigmentation 1 or SIP) acts as a suppressor.
The Pl gene encodes an Mob-homologous transcriptional activator of genes required for biosynthesize of red paleographer pigments, while the PI-war allele pacifies colorless kernel pericardia and red cobs, and unstable factor for oranges (Fool) modifies PI-war expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericardia, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant amounts of paleographer pigments. The maize P gene encodes a Mob homology that recognizes the sequence ACT/SAC, in sharp contrast with the ACTING bound by vertebrate Mob proteins. Diagrams . 3 a corn field in America Diagrams . Corn heap at the harvest side, India. Maize is widely cultivated throughout the world, and a greater weight of maize is produced each year than any other grain. The United States produces 40% of the world’s harvest; other top producing countries include China, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, India, France and Argentina. Worldwide production was 817 million tones in 2009-?more than rice (678 million tones) or wheat (682 million tones). In 2009, over 1 59 million hectares (390 million acres) of maize were planted worldwide, with a yield tot over 5 tones per nectar (80 buy/acre).
Production can be significantly higher in certain regions of the world; 2009 forecasts for production in Iowa were 11614 keg/ ha (185 buy/acre). There is conflicting evidence to support the hypothesis that maize lied potential has increased over the past few decades. This suggests that changes in yield potential are associated with leaf angle, lodging resistance, tolerance of high plant density, disease/pest tolerance, and other agronomic traits rather than increase of yield potential per individual plant.
In 2010, the maize planted area for all purposes in the US was estimated at 35 million hectares (87. 9 million acres) following an increasing trend since 2008. About 14% of the harvested corn area is irrigated. Diagram 1. 5 corn production in America during 2010 Top ten maize producers in 2013 Country Production (tones) United States China Brazil Argentina 32119,211 Ukraine India Mexico 22663,953 Indonesia 18,511853 France South Africa Table 1. 1 top 10 maize producers in 2013 1. 2 Corncob and cornerstone Diagram 1. 6 corn stoves in mass form.
Corn stoves consists of the leaves and stalks of maize (Zee Mays SSP. Mays L. ) plants left in a field after harvest and consists of the residue: stalk; the leaf, husk, and cob remaining in the field following the harvest of cereal grain. ” Stoves makes up about half of the yield of a crop and is similar to straw. Corn stoves is a very common agricultural product in areas of large amounts of corn production. As well, the stoves can also contain other weeds and grasses the non-grain part of harvested corn and “has low water content and is very bulky. Stoves can be grazed as forage or collected for use as fodder but is commonly not utilized. It can also be used as a fuel for pioneering or as feedstock for bio products. Maize stoves, together with other login celluloses biomass, provides about the potential 1. 3 billion tons of raw materials that could produce future fuel in the next 50 years. In the Netherlands and Belgium large improvements on yield are achieved by harvesting the full plant and crushing it while harvesting. The substance is primarily used as the food for cows during the winter season. It is known as “salamis”.
Field corn and sweet corn, two different types of maize, have relatively similar corn stoves products. Corn stoves is not harvested in all areas where corn is produced. In fact, “some agronomists question whether taking stoves out of the field annually will have a negative impact on soil fertility and structure. ” The uses for corn stoves are growing over time. One use of corn stoves pertains to corn producers who also raise cattle. Corn stoves can be beneficial to some cattle producers because the “corn stoves can provide a low cost feed sources for mid- gestation beef cows. In addition to the stalks, leaves, husks, and cobs remaining in t old, kernels tot grain may also be let over trot harvest. These let over kernels, along with the corn stoves, serve as an additional feed source for grazing cattle. Over time, the stalks will decrease in value as feed, so it is important to graze the corn stoves as soon as possible after harvest. The amount of grazing possible on a field of corn stoves is “between one and two months of grazing per cow per acre (50 cows on 0 acres (200,000 mm) for one to two months). Another use for corn stoves is celluloses ethanol however with current technology, a large part of the energy potential of cellulose is wasted due to the strength of the glycoside bonds that pair chains of C)-glucose units. Biomass ethanol is “ethanol made from non-grain plant materials known as biomass. ” Biomass ethanol would use the corn stoves from the corn crop produced in areas around ethanol plants. Corn stoves, due to the relative close proximity of the corn grain produced for ethanol production, “is by far the most abundant crop residue readily available today.
The free accessibility to corn stoves makes it a prime candidate for biomass ethanol production. A new DuPont facility in Nevada, Iowa is expected to generate 30 million gallons annually of celluloses befoul produced from corn stoves residues, its projected completion is mid-2014. Component dry Cellulose/Gluten 37. 4 Galaxy 21. 1 Arabian 2. 9 Manna 1. 6 Galactic 2. 0 Aligning 18. 0 Ash 5. 2 Acetate Protein 3. 1 Table 1. 2 component of corn stoves diagram 1. 7 corncob A corncob is the central core of a maize (Zee Mays SSP. Mays L. ) ear. It is the part of the ear on which the kernels grow.
The corn plant’s ear is also considered a “cob” or “pole” but it is not fully a “pole” until the ear is shucked, or removed from the plant material around the ear. Young ears, also called baby corn, can be consumed raw, but as the plant matures the cob becomes tougher until only the kernels are EDI I be When harvesting corn, the corncob may be collected as part tot the ear or may be left as part of the corn stoves in the field. The innermost part of the cob is white and has a consistency similar to foam plastic. This part of the maize is not utilized well, but yet there are some applications of corncob in certain areas.
For examples, industrial source of the chemical frugal, Fiber in fodder for ruminant livestock (despite low nutritional value), water in which corncobs have been boiled contains thickeners and can be added to soup stock or made into traditional sweetened corncob Jelly, livestock bedding – cobs absorb moisture and provide a compliant surface, a mild abrasive for cleaning building surfaces, when coarsely ground, raw material for bowls of corncob pipes, fuel – corncobs may be burned to provide heat and also charcoal production. 1. 3 Cellulose diagram 1. Cellulose structure Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H1005) n, a oligarchies consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of linked C)-glucose units. Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the mastectomy. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form billions.  Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40-50% and that of dried hemp is approximately 45%. Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper.
Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into befouls such as celluloses ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton. Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Thyrotrophic. In humans, cellulose acts as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and is oaten retired to as a “dietary Гјbeer”.
Cellulose was used to produce the TLS successful thermoplastic polymer, celluloid, by Hyatt Manufacturing Company in 1870. Production of rayon (“artificial silk”) from cellulose began in the asses and cellophane was invented in 1912. Hermann Staggering determined the polymer structure of cellulose in 1920. The compound was first chemically synthesized (without the use of any biologically derived enzymes) in 1992, by Sickbay’s and Soda. Cellulose is the main ingredient of textiles made from cotton, linen, and other plant fibers.
It can be turned into rayon, an important fiber that has been used for textiles since the beginning of the 20th century. Both cellophane and rayon are known as “regenerated cellulose fibers”; they are identical to cellulose in chemical Truckee and are usually made from dissolving pulp via viscose. A more recent and environmentally friendly method to produce a form of rayon is the Loosely process. 1. 3. 1 Breakdown (celluloid’s) Celluloid’s is the process of breaking down cellulose into smaller polysaccharides called cloistering or completely into glucose units; this is a hydrolysis reaction.
Because cellulose molecules bind strongly to each other, celluloid’s is relatively difficult compared to the breakdown of other polysaccharides. However, this process can be significantly intensified in a proper solvent, e. . In an ionic liquid. Most mammals have only very limited ability to digest dietary fibers such as cellulose. Some ruminants like cows and sheep contain certain symbiotic anaerobic bacteria (like Celluloses) in the flora of the rumen, and these bacteria produce enzymes called celluloses that help the microorganism to break down cellulose; the breakdown products are then used by the bacteria for proliferation.
The bacterial mass is later digested by the ruminant in its digestive system (stomach and small intestine). Similarly, lower termites contain in their handguns certain legislate protozoa which produce such enzymes; higher termites contain bacteria for the Job. Some termites may also produce cellulose of their own. Fungi, which in nature are responsible for recycling of nutrients, are also able to break down cellulose. The enzymes utilized to cleave the glycoside linkage in cellulose are glycoside hydrolysis including end-acting celluloses and ex.-acting glycoside.
Such enzymes are usually secreted as part of multivolume complexes that may include dickering and carbohydrate-binding modules. Diagram 1. 9 the breakdown product of cellulose, glucose molecule. 1 4 Dextrose/glucose gram 1. 10 a glucose molecule. Glucose (also known as dextrose, or grape sugar/corn sugar) is a simple lidos macroeconomics found in plants. It is a macroeconomics that is absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. It is an important carbohydrate in biology, which is indicated by the fact that cells use it as a secondary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate.
Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and fuels for cellular respiration. Like all houses, glucose has the molecular formula C6H1206. It has fifteen storerooms called lodestones that differ from it only by swapping the sections of the two subsistent (-H and -OH) at one or more of four choral centers (the four carbons at the center of the molecule). When all four choral centers are altered, the result is a mirror image of the original molecule that has similar chemical properties; however, the interaction of this with other compounds, as in the body, is very different.
Only one of the two mirrored forms, called C)-glucose, is generally encountered in nature. Like all lodestones, glucose also has a more diverse set of structural isomers, including a broader set of houses and incisions. However – unlike NY of the storerooms – a few structural isomers, the ring-shaped glamorousness and glamorousness, are rapidly produced and continually interconnect whenever glucose is dissolved in water, though they can be crystallized as separate compounds.
Because these were described long after glucose had been identified, they are usually called cyclic forms of glucose. The open chain form of glucose, with systematic name contains the free reactive alluded that makes glucose a reducing sugar and mediates these reactions. The chemical D-glucose is sometimes referred to as dextrose, a historical name that derives from declaratory glucose because a solution of C)-glucose in water rotates the plane of popularized light to the right (dextrose).
However, the D- in D- glucose refers to a choral chemical similarity property in sugars, not the property of rotating light (for example, C)-fructose rotates light to the left). For this reason, the D- and L- designations in sugars do not perfectly predict optical rotation, and do not refer to this property. Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of C)-glucose. The other storeroom, called L-glucose, is rarely found in nature. The name “glucose” comes from the Greek word Huxley, meaning “sweet wine, must”.
The suffix “-SSE” denotes a sugar. Diagram 1. 11 a d-glucose molecule. 1. 5 poly Lactic Rid (PLAN) Diagram 1. 12 polycyclic acid Poly(lactic acid) or polypeptide (PLAN) is a biodegradable thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States), tapioca roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). In 2010, PLAN had the second highest consumption volume of any plastic of the world. The name “poly(lactic acid)” does not comply with PUPAS standard