Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Erect Lectures by Chris Roomer, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: Inquiring About the World of Life ; Evolution ; Biology Response Evolutionary to the environment adaptation ; Life is recognized by what livings things do ; Biology consists of more than memorizing factual details Order ; Themes help organize biological information
Reproduction Regulation/ Homeostasis Energy processing Growth and development Theme: New Properties Emerge at Each Level in the Biological Hierarchy The biosphere Cells Biomass Organs and organ systems Ecosystems cell Organelles Communities Atoms Tissues Molecules Populations Organisms Emergent Properties ; Emergent Properties: result from arrangement and interaction of parts within a system
The Power and Limitations of Reductionism ; Reductionism: breakdown of complex systems to simpler components more manageable to study – Example: the molecular structure of DNA Understanding biology balances reductionism with the study of emergent properties – Example: new understanding comes from studying the interactions of DNA with other molecules Systems Biology ; System: combination of components that function together ; Systems biology: constructs models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems ; Systems approach poses questions such as: – How does a drug for blood pressure affect other organs? How does increasing CO alter the biosphere?
Theme: Organisms Interact with Environments, Exchanging Matter and Energy ; Every organism interacts with its environment, including biotic factors and other organisms ; Both organisms and their environments are affected by the interactions between them – Example: a tree takes up water and minerals from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air; the tree releases oxygen to the air and roots help form soil Ecosystem Dynamics ; Energy exchange between an organism and its environment often involves energy transformations