Belmont make sure subjects had unbiased chances

Belmont said “researchers
have a duty to protect the life, health, dignity, right to self-determination,
privacy and confidentiality of personal information of research subjects.” The
ethical principles are as below;


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Autonomy defines as each individual
should be given respect, time and chances to make their decisions. Subjects
must be given all the information they needed to determine either to
participate or not in the study. The subjects should not be pressure to enter
the study.  Vulnerable populations include
the person who is incapable of protecting their interests such as children,
older people, mentally ill and handicapped person should be given protection. They
may be unable to understand information that needs them to give informed
consent. Hence, to get informed consent from them not easy and special care
maybe needed to use different strategies in communicating with them.


defines as is an action taken for the benefits of others. The researcher had a huge
responsibility to secure all the study’s subjects, protect them from any harm. Other
than that, the researchers need to make sure subjects had unbiased chances to experience
the same advantages when participating in a study. Risks and benefits need to
be balance and it is an important factor. The key, according to the
1979 Belmont Report on the protection of human subjects, is to “maximize
possible benefits and minimize possible harms.”



ethical considerations between an exposure to danger and advantages raise the
question of justice.  The questions such
as who should take responsible for the risk of a study? Who should receive the
advantages of the study? This concept may be raise when researchers seek to
choose who will be chances to participate in the study and who will be
eliminates. Are those who are selected because their accessibility, their position
or their compliance while other are not? Below here a some tips to keep when
chosen potential subjects.

Subjects should not
be chose depend on class, socioeconomic status or race unless as stated by
study objectives.

Provide justification or sound arguments for
the exclusion criteria.

Should avoid a remain relationship that may
be can influence and need special attention when extending that relationship to
include researchers-subject role. Rearrangement and adjustment is needed to balance
the role.

For example lecturer should
not conduct a study or surveys in his/her own classrooms to prevent bias and
should find an unbiased person to participate in the study. Justice needing
much effort and skills to accomplish and complicated ethical issue. Hence, need
much efforts and should attempts at all times in study to make the risks and
benefits is fair and unbiased.

As a conclusion, the researchers
need to keep the principles of autonomy, beneficence and justice when choosing
suitable subjects, acquired consent, and carry out the study. The researchers
should take responsibility to protect and inform subjects. Subject is researchers’
priority and should not ignore or neglected their rights.






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