Before inside Serbia by firing and suspending

Before we start explaining and discussing the actions Bill Clinton puts forward in his speech, it is important to assess the background of the situation leading to the crisis in the Balkan area.After the death of former president of Yugoslavia, Tito, ethnic tensions started to grow between member countries. The decision-making inside the region was less and less centralised as the conflict of interest between parties grew larger. The Albanian population living in Kosovo then decided to demand the status of republic despite reaching any success so far. Serbia’s iron fist over the region suppressed any manifestation toward nationalism from Albanians. As the result, the region rapidly grew poorer and became more unstable. This situation created an opportunity for Slobodan Miloševi?, who quickly rose to power by supporting Serbs residing in Kosovo who were claiming to be oppressed by the Albanians. Popular votes from Serbian allowed him to be elected as Serbia’s president in February 1988. Miloševi?, through a series of event such as dissolving the Kosovo Assembly after they declared being an independent republic within Yugoslavia, started taking control of the majority of the political system inside Serbia by firing and suspending opposition, consequently reaffirming his power in the region. The tension kept rising in the Balkan region and it was not long before war erupted. Firstly, the Ten-Day War  in in Slovenia in 1991. Secondly, the Croatia war of independence who  started as well in 1991 and lasted 4 years. The war started following the early conflicts between the Croats seeking independence and the Serbs not agreeing to it. The conflicts spread to Bonia the following year opposing the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina chiefly supported by Bosniaks, and the self-proclaimed Herzeg-Bosnia, who were supported by the alliance of Serbia and Croatia. This conflict was mostly territorial but the consequences were dramatic for the region with, for example, the famous Srebrenica massacre of July 1995. Lastly, the wars discussed in Mr. Clinton speech, the Kosovo War, who lasted from from 1998 to 1999. A clash started against Serbs by the kosovo Liberation army leading to a provisional cease-fire agreement, mentioned by Mr. Clinton in his speech. However, this agreement broke two month later as fighting between the two sides resumed.Now that we have contextualise on side of the story, let’s turn toward the other side of the atlantic.It is important to note that Bill Clinton was elected president of the United States in January 20, 1993, two years after the start of the Yugoslavian wars. Prior to his election, George H. W. Bush decided not to take any participation on the resolvement of conflicts in the Balkans. However, much of Mr. Clinton’s early mandate was to bring an end to the yugoslavian conflict in order to restore peace favoring his nation’s interest. The first action he took was to lift the embargo of military shipment to former yugoslavian countries so they could arms themselves better against the Serb domination. Secondly, he proposed bombing serbian supply and key military infrastructures in order to diminish their resources.Meanwhile, in Europe, most countries were strongly opposed to these decisions, judging those actions too violent, opted for more diplomatic resolvement. Despite those disagreements, Clinton continued to press his european allies to support his decisions.As the course of the war evolved into Serbs favor, Clinton, supported by NATO finally launched a series of airstrikes pressuring the Serbs-Bosnians into participating into negotiations. This event led to the Dayton agreement. As we have seen earlier, only three month after the agreement was signed, the war started again. Clinton decided then to support the Albanian part of Kosovo and threatened the Yugoslav administration with more military strikes if they continued the war. This time, the NATO members lead by the U.S not only targeted strategic governmental and military targets but also civilians structures. The clear message was that the continuation of war could not be tolerated. The strike proved effective and an international peace plan was signed. Shortly after, Miloševi? get voted out of office and Koštunica becomes the new president of Yugoslavia. With the iron grip of Miloševi? gone, Yugoslavia restore relations with the west following the suspension of the several sanctions imposed on the region. The member states could finally resort to official independences and yugoslavia as a single entity was dissolved.Now that we have contextualise the events which happened into the balkans, we will try to analyse and explain the reasons of those events.It clear that Miloševi? and his rise to power was motivated by establishing serbian dominance over the Balkan region. The resistance from the member countries of yugoslavia to the Serbo-Bosnian influence would have always ended up in a conflict. The cultural values and determination for independence surpassed by far the diplomatic capabilities of those countries into resolving the issues peacefully. The goal was to centralise the power just like it was during the early stages of Yugoslavia when serbia was the main player of the region.What is not so clear is the reason of the direct intervention of the United States in the region. Clinton said clearly in his speech that the main reason for intervention in Yugoslavia was to prevent spreading conflict to Europe. While citing that the second world war started in Bosnia, he created a link between Yugoslavian stability to european stability and therefore U.S stability.However, President Clinton does not say that this is the only reason. Citing previous inaction by the international community, President Clinton stresses the fact that NATO has to represent itself as a credible and historical military alliance imposing peace in the conflict regions of the world. In addition, President Clinton refers to humanitarian consequences on balkan wars on the population. Citing “Two million Bosnians became refugees.”, the former president emphasizes the roles of NATO to resolve this human crisis. He highlights the violence on the population by the governments that the west should consider unacceptable, justifying a direct intervention : “This was genocide in the heart of Europe, not in 1945, but in 1995.”. It becomes clear that the reputation of NATO and especially the U.S in consideration for human life is one of the strongest argument from President Clinton for his intervention into Yugoslavia. He goes further into this argument : “If we and our allies were to allow this war to continue with no response, President Milosevic would read our hesitation as a license to kill.”. With this quote, it becomes apparent that a strong intervention shown as a display of force to a single man, Milosevic, is about to be put into place.However, from what we have seen later, most of the intervention from NATO has been through tactical moves such as embargo and military airstrikes. No major troops were deployed through the cities seeking to protect the population. Instead, military followed by civilian strikes were ordered, putting those very humanitarian motivation into question. The action taken by NATO showed to be more of a display of an ultimatum to the President Milosevic through powerful strikes rather than an effort to protect the spread of the conflict to europe or the regional population. This display of force had the goal of humbling the originator of conflicts in the Yugoslavian area, showing them they could be totally destroyed easily by NATO if they did not resolve to a peace agreement.We will conclude this analysis by discussing the potential ways the war could have been handle and our personal view on the reasons the intervention happened.We ought to ask ourselves if the several wars could have been avoided through diplomatic intervention. We do believe, previor to Milosevic election in 1988, diplomatic intervention could have had a positive outcome after seeing a major rise in tension in the yugoslavian area. Dilution of tensions through enforcement of institution and political coordination could have been put into place at the early stages to help prevent an outburst of wars. After the first conflits, it becomes more difficult to calm the tensions between the yugoslavian parties and even more so that the snowballing effect of members demanding individual republic independence. We believe President Clinton’s motive for intervention seems valid, the spread of violence to Europe, the massive waves of refugees and the local humanitarian crisis would have had terrible repercussions on the future of the balkans. Therefore, some action had to be taken to reduces the human and physical damages. After the wars ended and Yugoslavia imploded, we can see that the United States Army have build a base for NATO called Camp Bondsteel located new Ferizaj in the eastern part of Kosovo next to the Serbian frontier. This base establishes geographical control of the Balkan area controlled by NATO lead by the U.S.We can conclude that the actions taken by President Clinton in the Kosovo war has brought an end to the Balkan wars and contributed to the stabilisation of the region and is now controlled by NATO and the U.S


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