AP Biology Study Guide Essay

An enzymes biological activity -Substrate: Subject on which an enzyme acts -Induced Fit: Use active site on an substrate That is not an exact fit. -Denature: Destroys characteristics of a protein (By heat or acidity) *Enzyme can’t work* Irreversible inhibitors are covalently or nonchalantly bound to the target enzyme And dissociates very slowly from the enzyme.

There are three types of Irreversible inhibitors: group-specific reagents, Reactive substrate analogs also known as affinity labels and suicide inhibitors Reversible inhibitors can bind to enzymes through weak non-covalent interactions Such as ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bonds . Because reversible inhibitors do not form any chemical bonds or reactions With the enzyme, they are formed rapidly and can be easily removed; thus the Enzyme and inhibitor ample is rapidly dissociated In contrast to irreversible inhibition.

Examples of reversible inhibition: Competitive inhibition (Raises Km only) Uncompetitive inhibition (Lowers Vamp and Km) Noncompetitive inhibition (Lowers Vamp only) Examples of irreversible inhibition: Group specific: reacts only to certain chemical group. Reactive substrate analogs (affinity label): inhibitor that are structurally Similar to the substrate and will bind to active site. Mechanism-based inhibitors (suicide inhibitors): enzymes converts the Inhibitor into a reactive form within active site.

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