Alyssa ideasSupports abortion rights, affirmative action, gay

Alyssa IwashimizuPeriod 31/17/18US Government – Final Exam ReviewIntro to PoliticsThe Political SpectrumRadical – A person that believes that there should be quick and unprecedented changes in society and existing organizationsEx. Communists, Earth First, Black PanthersLiberal – A person that advocates for gradual changes in the present system and believes in government support of social programsEx. Green Party and some DemocratsModerate – A person who has beliefs from each side of the political spectrumEx. Some Democrats and some RepublicansConservative – A person that values tradition, believes in current political institutions, and wants limited government involvement in the economy and social programsEx. RepublicansReactionary – A person that strongly opposes the present conditions and supports returning to old ways of societyEx. Amish, KKK, Neo-NazisParty Platforms – Republicans v. DemocratsRepublicansPhilosophy: believe in American exceptionalism, support individuals’ rights, and oppose government interventionIssues: pro-life, traditional marriage, death penalty, no legalization of marijuana, gun rights, secure borders, legitimate voting, smaller government, vouchers, cruel prisons, private healthcare systemMost likely to join: white males and conservativesMost likely to live: south, mountain west, rural or suburban areasDemocratsPhilosophy: believe in working together, equal opportunities, and more government actionIssues: pro-choice, equal rights for marriage, no death penalty, controlled legalization, taxes, prevention programs, public healthcare system, clean energy sources, gun control, end to profiling, easier voting system, end to discriminationMost likely to join: women, minorities, youths, and liberalsMost likely to live: northwest or citiesOther Party Political Platforms (radical to reactionary)Peace & Freedom Party (1967) – radicalEnd all nuclear development and foreign military actionPromote feminist and socialist ideasSupports abortion rights, affirmative action, gay rights, labor rights, civil rights for all, environmental protection, universal healthcare, housing for all; Against death penaltyGreen Party (1984) – very liberalEnvironmental protection in all forms is top priorityNo nuclear power, ban on chemical weaponsSupports healthcare for all, gay rights, abortion rights, gun control, living wage, refugee statusLibertarian Party (1972) Eliminate laws with “victimless” crimes to encourage individual freedom Prostitution, drugs, gambling, suicide, gunsPro-choice with no government aidOppose welfare, censorship: restrictions on immigration and tradeProhibition Party (1867) – conservativeChristian Temperance organization, devoted to outlawing alcoholSupports an end to all immigration, welfarePro-life, favors adding a Human Life AmendmentSupports NASA and space explorationConstitution Party (1992) – very conservativeRestore America to its Bible foundationLimit Federal Government to its constitutional boundariesPro-life, pro-school prayer, anti-gun control, anti-immigrationAmerican Independent Party (1968) – reactionaryVery religious organization- pro-life, anti-euthanasiaSupports private property rights, states rights, death penaltyRestrict welfare, foreign aid, immigration, excess taxation, abolish IRSSeven Forms of GovernmentMilitary DictatorshipHead of state: dictatorDecision maker: dictatorSource of Power and how it is acquired: military; Coup D’EtatLength of rule: death or overthrowPolitical freedoms determined by: dictatorAbsolute MonarchyHead of state: king or queenDecision maker: king or queenSource of Power and how it is acquired: divine right through birthLength of rule: death, overthrow, or abdicationPolitical freedoms determined by: king or queenLimited MonarchyHead of state: king or queen, and prime ministerDecision maker: king or queen, and representative groupSource of Power and how it is acquired: divine right through birth; constitution through electionsLength of rule: death, overthrow, abdication, or end of termPolitical freedoms determined by: bill of rightsOligarchyHead of state: small group of leadersDecision maker: small group of leadersSource of Power and how it is acquired: intelligence or wealth; coalition or consensusLength of rule: death or overthrowPolitical freedoms determined by: oligarchsRepresentative Democracy (Republic)Head of state: presidentDecision maker: president or representative groupSource of Power and how it is acquired: constitution; electionsLength of rule: end of termPolitical freedoms determined by: bill of rightsDirect DemocracyHead of state: N/ADecision maker: all citizensSource of Power and how it is acquired: all citizens; electionsLength of rule: N/APolitical freedoms determined by: all citizensAnarchyHead of state: N/ADecision maker: N/ASource of Power and how it is acquired: no one has power over anyone elseLength of rule: ends when a government is establishedPolitical freedoms determined by: each individual (can do everything except organize)Influential Philosophers & Important TheoriesJohn LockePeople are born equal and have the ability to think and reasonNatural rights of man – life, liberty, and pursuit of propertyPeople can rebel against the government if government failed to protect the natural rights of man or broke the Social ContractThomas HobbesPeople are born evilIndividuals should follow a Social Contract and have a strong leaderSocial Contract cannot be brokenThe Three Branches of Government: Executive, Legislative, and JudicialArticle 1 – Legislative Branch makes lawsArticle 2 – Executive Branch enforces lawsArticle 3 – Judicial Branch judges lawsSeparation of Powers – the division of powers among the branches of government in which each branch receives its power from the ConstitutionChecks and Balances – each branch has the power to limit the power of other branchesJudicial Review – Supreme Court can declare acts of the other two branches unconstitutionalCongress writes laws – President can veto laws – Congress can override veto with a 2/3 vote President nominates justices – Senate approves nominationsPresident negotiates treaties – Senate must approve themHouse of Representatives can impeach judges and executive officials – Chief Justice of Supreme Court presides over impeachment hearing in the SenateThe Executive BranchThe President35 years old, natural born citizen, 14 years a resident of the USServe 4 year terms, with a 2-term limit and 10-year total limit (according to the 22nd Amendment)The Vice PresidentOnly constitutional duty – preside of the SenateTypically chairs presidential councils and fulfills diplomatic assignmentsFirst in line for presidency, then Speaker of the House, then President Pro Tempore, then Secretary of State, etc.  The Road to the White House in “8 Easy Steps”Candidacy1-2 years in advance, candidates announce bid for presidencyLocal and State ConventionsParties elect delegates to go to the National Party ConventionPrimary ElectionsTakes place between February and JuneCitizens vote for a candidate from their own political partyCitizens vote for other initiatives also on the ballotNational Conventions – Democrats, Republicans, and other partiesTakes place during the summerDelegates officially nominate their presidential candidatePolitical party platform establishedVice Presidential Candidate chosenNominee chooses running mate and receives advice from top party leadersVP candidate chosen to “balance the ticket”Will help the campaign by winning their stateElection DayTakes place the Tuesday after the first Monday in NovemberCandidate with the most votes in a state wins all of that state’s electoral votesElectoral College meets to officially elect the PresidentTakes place the Monday following the second Wednesday in DecemberCandidate must receive at least 270 of the 538 electoral votes to winHouse of Representatives decides who wins if no candidate receives at least 270 votesPossible to win a majority of the popular vote and not win Inauguration Day – January 20thPresident is sworn into the office by the Chief Justice of the Supreme CourtThe Electoral CollegeEach state receives as many electors as its senators and representatives in CongressUses a winner-takes-all systemCriticismsWinner-takes-all system allows for candidates to win several large states’ electoral votes, even if they didn’t have the most popular votes in totalThird-party candidate can prevent major-party candidates from winning a majority of the votesElection by the House brings issuesSmall populated states don’t have as much weight as populous statesStates lose their vote if representatives can’t agreeCan be difficult for candidates to win if a third party is favoredPresidential Assassinations (14 total – includes Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, Teddy Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, Herbert C. Hoover, Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, Gerald Ford)John F. KennedyKGB TheoryLee Harvey Oswald is suspected of being the assassinatorLee Harvey Oswald became a KGB agent in RussiaCubans TheoryCuba assassinated JFKProcess of Impeachment – being formally accused of unlawful activity; not necessarily being kicked out of the officeJustice Department or an independent council investigates, charges, and presents them to the House Judiciary CommitteeHouse Judiciary Committee goes over the evidenceHJC drafts Articles of ImpeachmentHJC debates Articles of Impeachment (Richard Nixon)Entire House of Representatives debates Articles of Impeachment and votes on them (Simple Majority)President is considered impeached if this occursSenate holds the trial “will the official be kicked out of the office”HJC acts as the prosecution – presents evidence against accusedAccused chooses own lawyers to present defenseChief Justice of Supreme Court acts as judge and rules on admissibility of evidenceSenates acts as the jury2/3 majority of the Senate must vote against accused to remove the person from the office (Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton)Roles of the PresidentHead of StateServes as ceremonial figure who represents the USTravels to other countriesLegislative LeaderInfluences Congress by proposing law ideasSigns and vetoes billsDelivers State of Union Address to Congress (message power)Chief ExecutiveApplies law passed by CongressCreates and signs executive orders Appoints and meets with Cabinet membersAppoints other federal officialsRecess appointment powerChief DiplomatMeets with foreign leadersInitiates foreign policyMakes and signs treaties with Senate approvalRecognizes foreign leadersParty LeaderCampaigns for other party membersActs as a leader of a political partyPatronage – rewards party members with government positionsChief JuristAppoints all federal judges, US Attorneys, and MarshalsCan check power of Judicial BranchPardon – releases a person from legal punishmentClemency – leniency in punishmentAmnesty – a pardon given to a large groupEconomic LeaderAppoints economic leadersPrepares annual budget requestCommander in ChiefSets strategy and policy for the militaryConsults with the Joint Chiefs of StaffWar Time PowersCan control industryHas power to suspend some constitutional freedomsWar Powers ActOnly person that can launch nuclear weapons The War Powers Act (1973 – Vietnam War)President must present reasons and justifications for sending troops into action 48 hours of beginning of hostilitiesPresident must withdraw troops within 60 days if Congress doesn’t approve longer stayThe CabinetAgricultureHead of Department: George Ervin “Sonny” Perdue IIIAdministers the Forest Service (manages national forests), heads anti-pollution efforts, regulates price for farmers, safeguards food supplyCommerceHead of Department: Wilbur RossPromotes development of economic resources, runs the Patent Office, monitors the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Weather Service and the US Travel and Tourism AdministrationDefenseHead of Department: James MattisMonitors weapons development, maintains military preparedness and quality, monitors all branches of military, monitors Coast Guard during wartime, Joint Chief of Staff does military planningEducationHead of Department: Betsy DeVosCoordinates education plans for the country, encourages public school excellence, ensures equal educational opportunity for all, oversees federal scholarship and loan programsEnergyHead of Department: Rick PerryCoordinates federal energy policies, conducts energy research and works on development of other energy resource options, monitors transportation of energy sources, sets rate for interstate transmission of gas/electricityHealth & Human ServicesHead of Department: Tom PriceMonitors the Food and Drug Administration and Public Health Service (identifies health hazards, availability of health services, conducts research of public health problems), runs Social Security Agency, oversees Medicare and Medicaid to provide cheaper healthcareHomeland SecurityHead of Department: John F. KellySecret Service ensures protection for president and other leaders, Border and Transportation Security employs officers to keep border and transportation secure, monitors US Customs Service, Science and Technology agency researches preparations for threats using weapons of mass destruction, oversees Coast Guard during peacetime, oversees US Citizenship & Immigration Service officesHousing & Urban DevelopmentHead of Department: Ben CarsonBuilds low income housing and increases access to affordable housing, enforces anti-discrimination housing laws, monitors mortgage assistance, helps victims of natural disastersThe InteriorHead of Department: Ryan ZinkeMonitors National Park Service and Fish and Wildlife Service, manages and conserves natural resources, oversees Native American reservations, monitors Federal Water Quality Association (works with Guam, Puerto Rico, and US Virgin Islands)JusticeHead of Department: Jeff SessionsProvides legal advice to President, investigates and prosecutes violations of federal law, oversees the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Agency and the Antitrust Agency, Attorney General is the 2nd highest law enforcement officer in the USLaborHead of Department: Alexander AcostaOversees efforts to improve working conditions, works to provide better employment opportunities, attempts to protect employees’ rights, oversees Occupational Safety & Health Administration, monitors pensions, regulates unionsStateHead of Department: Rex TillersonCarries out foreign policy (implements ideas for trade, treaties, and communication), Foreign Service maintains embassies, employs experts of all areas, monitors passport production, speaks for US at the United NationsTransportationHead of Department: Elaine ChaoCreates transportation plans, makes policies that encourages fast, cheap transportation, oversees Federal Highway Administration, monitors commercial shipping and railways and mass transit safetyTreasuryHead of Department: Steven MnuchinAdvises President on all matter of domestic and foreign economic policy, oversees Internal Revenue Services, prints money, oversees General Accounting Office, regulates Alcohol and Tobacco and FirearmsVeterans AffairsHead of Department: David ShulkinGrants benefits to veterans and their families, administers veterans’ hospitals and educational programsThe Supreme CourtJusticesConservativeClarence Thomas ? Appointed by George Bush in 1991 (52-48)Chief Justice John RobertsAppointed by George Bush in 2005 (78-22)Samuel AlitoAppointed by George Bush in 2006 (58-42)Neil GorsuchAppointed by Donald Trump in 2017 (54-45)LiberalRuth Bader Ginsburg ? Appointed by Bill Clinton in 1993 (96-3)Stephen BreyerAppointed by Bill Clinton in 1994 (87-9)Sonya SotomayorAppointed by Barack Obama in 2009 (68-31)Elena KaganAppointed by Barack Obama in 2010 (63-37)”Swing”Anthony KennedyAppointed by Ronald Reagan in 1987 (97-0)Main Purpose of the Supreme CourtTo clarify laws by checking the constitutionality of each lawWays a Case Can Reach the CourtWrit of Certiorari – an order from the Supreme Court to a lower court to send records on a case in order to convince the Supreme Court to accept the caseOriginal Jurisdiction Appeals through the State Court systemAppeals through the Federal Court systemRule of FourVocabulary1st Degree Murder: intentional, premeditated killingSpecial Circumstance: needed in addition to 1st degree murder to assign death penalty2nd Degree Murder: intentional, spur of the moment killingManslaughter: unintentional killing in the process of another crimeInvoluntary Manslaughter: unintentional killing through actions that weren’t illegal, but were negligentFelony: a crime, considered more serious than a misdemeanor and punishable with a longer sentence (jail time: more than a year)Misdemeanor: a misdeed, less serious than a felony (jail time: less than a year)Precedent: a decision by the Supreme Court that is used as the basis for a decision in a similar case.Plain View: exception to the warrant requirement; officer can seize incriminating items or evidence they are lawfully in a position to observe and seizeHot Pursuit: suspect is seen in process of crime so no search warrant is neededExclusionary Rule: items taken illegally are inadmissible in court as evidenceNo Double Jeopardy: cannot be tried twice for the same crimeIndictment: a formal charge by a grand juryPower of Eminent Domain: power to take private property for public use upon just compensationSelf-incrimination: the “right to remain silent”Subpoena: a court order requiring a person to appear in court and give testimonyBail: money paid as a promise to return to trialArraignment: a court hearing to determine if a person will be set free on bail while awaiting trialProcedural Due Process: the government must follow steps in specific order to convict a person of a crimeSubstantive Due Process: the laws themselves must be fairLethal Injection: the most common method used in executions (including in CA)Types of DecisionsUnanimous – all justice agree on a caseMajority – majority of the justices agree on a caseConcurring – some justices agree on the outcome but not the reasoningDissenting – minority of justices disagree on a caseMarbury v. Madison Judicial Review – the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of the government unconstitutional


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