According students enrolled in primary education for

According to the recent UNESCO data Nigeria is categorised as a lower middle income country (UNESCO 2017). The latest data available shows that the proportion of the Nigerian population living below the national poverty line stood at 46.0% of the whole population in 2009, which accounted for 71.0 million people out of the total of 154.4 million the same year (World Bank Data 2017). The 2016 Human Development Index (HDI) measures social and economic development in which Nigeria ranked at 152th out of 188 countries thus finding itself within the Low Human Development threshold along with countries such as Cameroon (153th) and the United Republic of Tanzania (151th) (UNDP 2016). The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) measures public sector perception of corruption in 178 countries. In 2016, Nigeria ranked at 136 out of 178 countries, and it was also ranked amongst 38 of the most corrupt countries in the world (Transparency International 2014). In the 2015 EFA review carried out by the Federal Ministry of Education of Nigeria as a response to UNESCO’s invitation to assess progress made since 2000, states that enrolments in primary and junior secondary schools increased, although issues remained with transition and completion rates, which remained well below 70%. The number of students enrolled in primary education for both sexes grew between 2009 and 2012 from 21,540,367 to 23,476,939 owing largely to the rise in the number of primary schools from 58,595 to 61,305, which represents an increase of 5%. Nevertheless, there still remain challenges such as the estimated 10.1 million (the biggest in the world) children out of school and 26% of children who fail to complete the primary education cycle (UNESCO 2015). Between 2009 and 2013 there was growth in the number of Junior Secondary Schools with their number going up to 11,874 from  10,410 (UNESCO 2015). The progress in the reduction of out-school population stalled between 1999 and 2012 despite the growth in the country’s GNP (UNESCO 2015).  Net Enrolment in basic education (6 years of primary schooling and 3 years of junior secondary schooling) stood at 60% in 1995 and in 2013 it dipped to 54%. Primary school completion rate increased from 73% in 1993 to 82% by the MDG end-point year (Millennium Development Goals, 2015). The significant literacy rate of 80% in 2008 could not be sustained as it ended up plummeting to 66.7% in 2014 (Millennium Development Goals, 2015). The consolidated education expenditure grew over the years from 8.94 (% of GDP) in 2003 to 12.78% in 2011. Nevertheless, the current rate of funding, which stands under 10%, is well below the UNESCO recommended rate of 26% of GDP (Amakom, 2015). As the 2015 UNESCO EFA report states, there is a conspicuous paucity of data on government expenditure on education in the country. UNESCO adds that Nigeria has not provided any data on the share of the budget the government spends on education, which has been the case ever since 1999 (UNESCO 2015). The 2015 UNESCO EFA report identified 10 major impediments blocking the proper development of education in Nigeria, one of them being the low quality of teachers resulting in low quality learning.


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