According in the year 585 B.C., solar

According to philosophy, the relationship between nature and human is complicated, or at least it once was. The world once was without nature, and us, humans, invented nature, but as soon as nature was invented, humans became more apart from nature than ever before. The world prior to 600 BC was without nature, therefore it was ruled by chaos, and chaos is the opposite of nature. The world in which the ancient Greeks inhabited was mythful, therefore a chaotic world. There was no reasoning and no nature in Ancient Greece. The Greeks believed that everything form movements in the sky, the sun, moon, rain, to love was caused by some supernatural phenomenon and was assumed that it was just humans. Greeks believed that if the sun didn’t show up, Apollo, the sun God must be angry, if it didn’t rain, it was assumed that Zeus, the God of thunder, rain, heavens, must be angry. Greeks believed that all these supernatural natural people, so called “Gods” lived on Mount Olympus and they controlled everything. For example, in the year 585 B.C., solar eclipse happened. According to the NASA, Solar Eclipse “happens when the moon gets in the way of the sun’s light and casts its shadow on Earth. That means during the day, the moon moves over the sun and it gets dark.” The Greeks believed that solar eclipse was caused by Apollo’s anger, they believed that that Apollo was angry at them and the world was going to end. Fortunately, in that year 585 B.C., first ever known philosopher named Thales knew that it would come right back, and it was caused by natural phenomena. He came up with weather and climate. In the year 585 B.C., Myth and Chaos ended and it marked the beginning of reason and nature. In the world prior to Thales, earth, fire, water, and the air was believed to be the ultimate substance, which was solely based Greek Mythology. Thales believed that water was the ultimate substance because of what he saw. Anaximander argued against Thales, he believed that air was the ultimate substance of reality. In the same way, Anaximus assumed that there must a “5th element” on top of Earth, Fire, Air, and Water; which was “Aperion.” He believed that Aperion was the ultimate substance. Aperion is the foundation of theoretical entity. Later, a mathematician named Pythagoras claimed that the geometrical shapes was the ultimate substance of reality. Heraclites claimed that “everything is fire, you can never step into the same river.” By that, he meant that everything changes. Once a river flows, it is not the same, it is constantly changing. Once you step your foot into the water, you step into a specific bit. Once you take your foot out from it, and step into the water again, you are stepping into a different bit of water, because the river is always changing. Also, same goes for the fire, if we look closely at the fire, the flames are continuously changing. In the same way, everything changes.In the year 485 B.C., a man named Parmenides introduced the concept of “being.” “Being” is what it is. “Being is what it bes.” Change is impossible. Parmenides is known as the founder of Monistic view of reality. Later, Zeno backs up Parmenides using math. Zeno develops an idea know as “Zeno’s Paradoxes.” The paradox basically claims that there would be an infinite amount of midpoint to any given thing, which essentially means that we can never really move. Later, Anaxagoras comes up with a completely new theory which claimed that mind is the ultimate substance of reality.  And Democritus concludes that atom is the ultimate substance of reality. Democritus is known as the father of the atomic theory. Later Socrates comes up with a completely new theory. He comes up with the soul body dichotomy. Socrates describes the body as prison, so to speak, to the soul. Socrates claims that the body is like a prison to the soul, that the soul is stuck inside and can only look through. The body acts as a filter, it ends up filtering out what the soul can perceive, therefore the soul is a helpless prisoner to the body. Body is nothing but a distraction to soul, the body confuses, hinders, and interferes with the soul; it is evil. Socrates states the body is the source of sin. “When returning into herself . . . the soul passes into the other world, the region of purity, and eternity, and immortality, and unchangeableness, which are her kindred, and with them she ever lives, when she is by herself and is not let or hindered; then she ceases from her erring ways, and being in communion with the unchanging is unchanging. And this state of the soul is called wisdom. . . .The soul is in the very likeness of the divine, and immortal, and intellectual, and uniform, and indissoluble, and unchangeable (Phaedo).” The ultimate goal of soul is to gain wisdom, to see the afterlife, but the body interferes and keeps the soul from obtaining wisdom. Instead of helping the soul in the path of obtaining wisdom, the body hinders the soul. The body is nothing but evil, therefore is the core source of sin. Socrates’ soul body dichotomy in the Phaedo is parallel to the Christian belief that the “spirit is ready but the flesh is weak.” Since body is the prison, so to speak, to the soul, only way for one to attain wisdom is by separation of body and soul. The only way soul and body is separated is by death. Socrates doesn’t see death as end of life but rather just as separation victory. Socrates believes that everyone’s goal in life is to die. When the soul is separated away from the body, soul is no longer a prisoner of the body, the soul becomes free and the bars which filters what the soul can perceive is no longer present; therefore, the soul obtains wisdom once it is separated from the body. Another Argument Socrates makes is theory of Recollection. Socrates argues that learning is just a process of recollecting all the things we already knew before we were born. We just forget all the knowledge prior to birth, so we use the learning process to recollect the knowledge we lost. Socrates also argues that true knowledge is the knowledge of eternal and unchanging which is the cause of tangible reality. Socrates also states the theory of Affinity. This theory claims that if the soul is not properly detached from the body, it will suffer and become ghost and will return to flesh. In the 17th century, about 2,000 years later, Arestodal proves the existence of God with empirical evidence and proofs of afterlife and sin. He believed that soul is separate, and has no connection to flesh. He believed in the materialistic world. Later in the 17th century, Rene Descartes claims that everything we perceive is just a delusion. Descartes doesn’t aim to reject his beliefs but he doubts everything he perceives. Descartes believed that everything we see through our sense is not necessarily accurate. He believed that everything we see is just an imagination. He believed that Human Beings are just a thing that thinks. Descartes states, “I am! I exist! I think! Therefore, I am! But, what am I? I think therefore I am a thing that thinks.” Descartes doubts the truth of everything. Descartes claims that everything we perceive through our naked eyes, and our judgement about this external world may be just a mistake. He claims that everything we see is just what we think we see, we don’t see it for what it is. For example, he states about times when he sees people standing far away as trees. His point was that sense are not always wrong but there is a variance between the reality and what we perceive, therefore, our senses could be misleading. Everything we see may be just a dream. Sometimes we dream such things that we can’t say for sure whether if it’s a dream or reality, so therefore, everything could be a dream, including what you’re doing right now. And Descartes also claims that God is deceiving.  He claims that God is all powerful and he saves us all from evil and his power also keeps us from seeing the basic structure of the world.  Later in the 20th century, a German Nationalist by the name of Martin Heidegger dissolves the line between nature and humans; he proves decorates wrong and the world just becomes the object of the subject. Heidegger beloved that humans were becoming disconnected from the world.  Prior to Heidegger, humans and nature were more apart than ever, but Heidegger comes up with an existential and ontological argument dissolves the line which distanced nature and humans. Heidegger brings an end to subject object dichotomy. He proves that we are not just a thing that thinks, but rather we are a “Daseind,” which translates to “The Being.” In another word, being is there where being is. Humans are all Daseind, but not all Daseind are humans. He tells it like it is. He just points out all the stuff that always existed. For example, Heidegger states, “What is meant by “Being-in”? Our proximal reaction is to round out this expression to “Being-in” ‘in the world'”, and we are inclined to understand this Being-in as ‘Being in something’ ….as the water is ‘in’ the glass, or the garment is ‘in’ the cupboard. By this ‘in’ we mean the relationship of Being which two entities extended ‘in’ space have to each other with regard to their location in that space……Being-present-at-hand-along-with in the sense of a definite location-relationship with something else which has the same kind of Being, are ontological characteristics which we call ‘categorial’ ” In this statement, what he is saying is that, the cup of water doesn’t belong anywhere. The water is in the cup, but it doesn’t mean that it belongs in the cup. If we spill the water from the cup onto the ground, the water is no longer “in” the cup. The water doesn’t come back to the cup because it doesn’t belong anywhere. We can put the water in any place we want, it stays wherever we place it. It is not the same with humans. The “there” is where human beings are. For example, Dr. Tirone’s 150 class is not “there” in room 208, it is “there” wherever humans are. While all the students are in the room 208, that is where Dr. Tirone’s 150 class is, but as soon as humans leave that room, that class is no longer “there.” That class could take place in anywhere in the world. For example, I could be sitting in California and taking the course online, therefore the class is “there” in California because that’s where the human being “bes.” Essentially, Daseind is the essence of what humans is. Everything “bes” where humans are. Heidegger, ended the complicated relationship between humans and nature and brought back nature and humans together by dissolving the line lied in-between. Let us stop questioning our “being” and just accept the fact that we are here and we are alive, therefore everything in the world is “there” wherever we are, not the other way around. 


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