ABSTRACT pH is needed to protect pipe

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen ion concentration or pH is
used to indicate the acidity or alkalinity of the drilling mud. Drilling mud
are always designed to be alkaline in nature (i.e., pH>7). Therefore, pH
should be determined because having a high concentration of hydrogen ions in the
drilling mud can cause serious problems to the well. The hydrogen ion
concentration of the drilling mud can be affected by different parameter. When
weighting agents and additives are added to the drilling mud they can either
increase or reduce the pH. Another major problem caused by low pH is corrosion.
Higher pH is needed to protect pipe and casing from corrosion because metals
corrode when they come in contact with acidic fluids.

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Table
of content

 

Abstract…………………….……………………………………………………2

 

Introduction…..……………………………………………………………….4

 

Equipment & Apparatus/Diagram………………………………….….5

 

Procedure……………………………………………………………………….8

 

Results/Analysis.………………………………………………………………9

 

Maintenance………………………………………………………………….10

 

Precautions…….………………………………………………………………10

 

Discussion & Conclusion…………………………………….……………11

 

References……………………………………………………………………….11

INTRODUCTION

 

The term pH is a scale used to
specify the alkalinity or acidity of an aqueous solution. A pH of 7 indicates
that the drilling fluid is neutral. A pH below 7 indicates an increase in
acidity, while a pH above 7 indicates an increase in alkalinity. In a neutral
solution, the hydrogen ion (H+) and the hydroxyl ion (OH-) concentrations are
the same, with each equal to 10-7. There are two methods used to
determine the hydrogen ion concentration in this experiment which are the
colorimetric method and the electrometric method.

 

 

 

 

                     

 

 

 

 

 

EQUIPMENT /APPARATUS

 

Ø Colorimetric Method

·       Ph
paper

·       Mixer

·       Spatula

·       Measuring
cylinder

·       Weighing
scale

 

Ø Electrometric method

·       Ph
meter

·       Mixer

·       Spatula

·       Measuring
cylinder

·       Weighing
scale

 

 

 

 

 

 

DIAGRAMS

                        

Fig 1. A diagram of a pH meter.

Fig 2. Diagram of a pH paper.

Fig 2. Diagram of a weighing balance.

SAMPLES

SAMPLE
1:

25g of bentonite

350ml of water

 

SAMPLE
2:

25g of bentonite

350ml of water

3g of salt (NaCl)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROCEDURES

Colorimetric
Method

1.  
I measured 350ml of
water and 25g of bentonite.

2.  
I poured them into
the mixing cup and used the electric mixer to mix until the mixture is smooth.

3.  
I poured the mixture
into a sample cup and placed a strip of pH paper on the surface of the sample.

4.  
I matched the colour
of the pH paper which had contact with the mud, against the standard colour
chart.

5.  
I repeated the same
procedure above for sample 2.

Electrometric
method

1.  
I measured 350ml of
water and 25g of bentonite.

2.  
I poured them into
the mixing cup and used the electric mixer to mix until the mixture is smooth.

3.  
I poured the mixture
into a sample cup and turned the pH meter on.

4.  
I pushed the pH/mv
key until the annunciators indicated the desired mode.

5.  
I set the
temperature compensation manually by adjusting the temperature over a range of
0?to
100?C.

6.  
I rinsed the probe
and immersed the probe into the mixture.

7.  
I left the probe in
the mixture for 60 to 90 seconds until the reading stabilized and then took my
reading.

8.  
I repeated the same
procedure above for sample 2.

RESULTS
AND ANALYSIS

Mud Sample

pH Paper

pH Meter

Temperature

Sample 1

9.0

8.5

26.80

Sample 2

7.0

7.4

28.20

 

 

 

          

        

 

 

 

 

 

 

MAINTAINANCE

Properly
wash and dry all the equipment used thoroughly after they have been used.

 

             

 

 

 

PRECAUTIONS

1.  
I avoided completely
immersing the pH paper into the sample.

2.  
I made sure the
colour of the test paper stabilized before checking it against the standard
colour chart.

3.  
I made sure the
probe tip never became dry.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISSCUSION
& CONCLUSION

 

In conclusion,
from the experiment we can determine that the drilling fluid is alkaline in
nature because it ranges from 7- 9. The pH value gotten from 1 is good and will
not affect the mud in any way dangerously. We can also see that the value in
sample 2 dropped due to the addition of salt. If it continues it can cause
corrosion.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Drilling
fluid technology note (PET 315) by Dr.Engr. E.E.Okoro

Drilling
mud manual by Engr. Ifeanyi

 

 

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