Abstract- The paper
is designed for street light with auto intensity control with the help of PWM
technique using solar power controlled by Raspberry Pi board. As sun is
renewable source of solar energy, awareness for solar energy is increasing, and
everyone is trying to use solar energy for their work. Solar panels are used
for charging solar cells by converting the sunlight into electricity. The
intensity of street lights is required to be kept high during traffic. As the
traffic on the roads decreases in late nights, the intensity of street light
can be reduced. In High Intensity Discharge lamps (HID) the intensity is not
controllable because when reduction of voltage is done then discharge path
breaks. But in LED lights because of PWM technique the intensity is controllable.
A Raspberry Pi board is used to provide different intensities at the different
situations of traffic at night time using PWM techniques, for energy saving. Intelligent
street lighting system turns the light ON and OFF depending on the vehicle or
Key words- LED Lamps, Raspberry
pi, Sensors, LDR, RFID card and Reader.
The Street lights are the major requirements in
today’s life for safety purposes, to reduce crime rate and avoiding accidents
during night. Providing street lighting is one of the most important and
expensive responsibilities of a city. It also encourages social inclusion by
providing an environment in which people feel they can walk in hours of
darkness. Despite that in today’s busy lifestyle no one bothers to switch
lights OFF/ON when not required. Inefficient lighting wastes significant
financial resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions.
Energy efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costs
street lamps are controlled manually in most of the cities. Generally street
lights are switched ON for whole night and, during the day, they are switched
OFF. But at night time there is no necessity of street lights when there is no traffic.
The proposed system in this paper implements smart street lighting system in
which block of street lights turns ON after detection of vehicle and as soon as
the vehicle moves ahead the trailing lights automatically switches OFF. Now-a-days,
the street lights are working on electricity. The electricity is generated by
renewable and nonrenewable sources. Nonrenewable sources are getting reduced
day by day. In proposed system instead of using nonrenewable sources, renewable
source such as sun is used to generate the energy to switch ON the street
The paper presents an automatic street light
controller using Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). By using this system manual
works are removed. The street lights are automatically switched ON when the
sunlight goes below the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF the
streetlight when ample amount of sunlight is available, it means LDR resistance
is inversely proportional to light falling on it. Whenever there is sufficient
light falling on the LDR, it exhibits high resistance and acts as an insulator
and in darkness the LDR behaves as low resistance path and allows the flow of
When the light falls on the LDR it sends the commands
to the control circuit that it should be in the OFF state and the streetlight
This proposed system provides a solution for energy
saving. This is achieved by sensing an approaching vehicle and then switches ON
a street light ahead of the vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing lights
gets dimmed automatically.
Lighting can account for 10-38% of the total energy bill in typical
cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public
authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for
economic and social stability. The main consideration in the present field
technologies are Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness.
Automation is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligent
systems. The busy lifestyle of humans has led to untimely switching of street
lights. As a result lot of power is being wasted. The advanced development in
embedded system has set a platform for designing energy efficient systems.
Electrical Power wastage can be reduced by using two light dependent resistors
as light sensing devices or light sensors to indicate day or night time. A
photoelectric sensor has been used to detect the movement of humans and
vehicles on the streets. The supply to the control unit and to light the street
light is being achieved by the implementation of solar panels.
the previous work done related to the vehicle movement using street light
detection by different authors is explained in the literature survey. The
strategic implementation of the different communication technologies and the
methodology used in system is discussed briefly.
“The Smart Street Light System based on
Image Processing” 1 implemented by
Veena P C, Paulsy Tharakan, Hima Haridas, Ramya K, Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S
in 2016 consists of LED Lamps, Raspberry Pi, Sensors, LDR, OLFC. The Smart
Street Light System based on Image Processing, is a hardware application
which takes video as input and detect movement of vehicles and human beings
to switch ON only a chunk of street lights ahead of it (vehicle & human),
and to switch OFF the trailing lights to save energy . The Object Level Frame
comparison methodology is used to detect the vehicles and humans. Sensors are
also included in this system to detect whether the temperature and gas are
exceeding in the particular area and send a SMS immediately to the
corresponding department via a GSM module. Raspberry Pi is used as the platform
as it enables the number of modules to be connected to it through the various
ports. A camera connected to the Raspberry Pi is the element through which
input image is taken. The LDR is used to measure the intensity of light. The
merits of this system are power reduction and this system is used to save
energy and demerits are high initial cost and no backup plan. Because of these
two demerits this system is not much efficient 1.
Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM
Technology” 2 implemented by Ms.
Swati Rajesh Parekar, Prof. Manoj M. Dongre in 2015, consists of Atmega
microcontroller, GSM, LED, Raspberry Pi,
Sensors, Street Light. The system is designed such a way that lights
sensors (LDR), RTC and Presence sensor placed in all street lights circuit will
turn ON and OFF lamps automatically. When the lights are turn ON every light
pole having current sensor informs about fault to the centralized system by
using GSM module attached to circuit via Short Message Service (SMS). The
information through SMS is received at Base station with Raspberry Pi (a compute
module), analyzes the data and the status of street lamp is visualized with
help of Graphical User Interface (GUI). This makes the fault detection and
maintenance of system easy than the conventional system. System makes the most
efficient use of the energy received from the sun to power street lights. The
merits of this system are use of solar panels and this system is flexible
according to need of user and demerit of this system is that this system is
very expensive. Because of this the system is not useful in the rural areas
where there is low budget. The rural area lighting is the main application of
our project and this system does not applicable there 2.
“Design and implementation of Traffic Flow
based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of solar energy” 3
implemented by M.Abhishek , Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar used, 8052
series microcontroller, LDR, Photoelectric Sensor, Street Lights in Design and
implementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective
utilization of solar energy. In this system renewable source of energy i.e.,
solar power is used for street lighting. Apart from this, normal bulbs are
replaced in street lighting with LEDs due to which the power consumption in
reduced by 3 times. And also, IR sensors are used to detect the movement of
object to activate the lighting a few meters before the object is about to
reach the lighting area. Here, the IR sensors are deactivated after a timing
delay of 30seconds and similarly remaining sensors are activated and
deactivated after 30seconds. The process is controlled by 8052 series
microcontroller. The merits of this system are power reduction and this system
is used to save energy and demerits are high initial cost and no backup plan.
Because of these two demerits this system is not much efficient. Because of no
backup plan we cannot relia on the system totally. Because of this we have to
search for other options 3.
“Internet of Things Based Intelligent
Street Lighting System for Smart City” 4 implemented by Parkash, Prabu V, Dandu Rajendra in 2016.
This system is implemented with smart embedded system which controls the street
lights based on detection of vehicles or any other obstacles on the street
.Whenever the vehicle is detected light will get automatically ON/OFF and the
same information can be accessed through internet. The system architecture of
the intelligent street light system consists of IR sensors, LDR, PIC16F877A
microcontroller, Relay, UART and Wi-Fi Module. When a light dependent resistor
is kept in dark, its resistance is very high. The vehicle which passes by the
street light is detected by IR sensor (IR transmitter and IR receiver couple).
Relays are used as a switch to switch on/off the street light bulb. The real
time information of the street light (ON/OFF Status) can be accessed from
anytime, anywhere through internet. The
merit of this system is reduction of manpower, automatic switching of street
lights, reduction in CO?
emission, Reduction of light pollution, wireless communication, energy saving
and demerits are initial cost and maintenance is high. Because of these
two demerits this system is not much efficient. And it is not used in such
areas where there is less budget to implement smart street lighting project
“Smart street lighting system based on
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)” 5
implemented by Dr. D. V. Pushpa Latha, Dr. K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni
in 2014 describe about and input sensing devices. The proposed controller gives
fast, reliable, and power efficient street lamp switching based on seasonal
variations. The simulated results are also verified experimentally by using a
Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) which senses the light. LDR is used as the
replacement for the seasonal variation. This paper confirms that the proposed
PLC based street lighting control system has great potential to revolutionize
street lighting which in turn saves large amount of power. But PLC’s are used
for automation of industrial electro-mechanical processes which does not help
in our proposed system 5.
III.SYSTEM MODEL AND COMPONENTS
system provides a solution for energy saving. This is achieved by sensing an
approaching vehicle and then switches ON a block of street lights ahead of the
vehicle. As the vehicle passes by, the trailing light gets dimmed
automatically. Thus, we save a lot of energy. So when there are no vehicles on
the highway, then intensity of light becomes low.
This system is
developed using Raspberry Pi along with various sensors sensing the vehicle.
LDR is used to automatically switch ON the street lights when the sunlight goes
below the visible region of our eyes and switches OFF the streetlight when some
amount of sunlight is available. LDR is used to identify the difference between
day and night. This system should have to turn ON at night time and remains OFF
at day time and this is achieved with the help of LDR. To sense the vehicle IR
sensors are used. Pair of IR transmitter and receiver situated on both sides of
the road detects vehicles and give command to control unit to turn ON/OFF block
of street light. When vehicle or any
other object is sensed by IR sensor, then the street lights will glow. And if
vehicle or any other object is not detected by IR sensor, then the street
lights will remain in OFF state. The control unit used here is Raspberry Pi.
supply required for control unit and street lights is given from the renewable
source, Sun. The solar energy is taken with help of solar panel and stored in a
battery. The energy stored in battery is in the form of AC but Raspberry Pi
work on DC. So ADC operation is required in proposed system. Raspberry Pi
cannot drive LEDs directly, so MOSFET drive is required to drive LED.
power supply is used as a backup plan when solar panels are not working
properly or when there is insufficient solar energy. To drive Raspberry Pi +5V
DC supply is required. The supply from
mains is 230V, 50Hz. To convert this into +5V DC supply transformer, rectifier,
filter are used.
RFID card on
the car and RFID reader on the pole is placed. With help of RFID reader whole
information of car can ban be displayed on LCD. The information of car is its
unique plate no. and information of car owner. To avoid collision ultrasonic
sensor is used. In rainy season
sometimes there may be condition that the driver may not see beyond some limit.
So in such situation the ultrasonic sensor may help the driver to get the
information about the vehicles or obstacles ahead of him. There may be some
another situations too, so to drive safely in such tricky condition is very
difficult job. In such cases ultrasonic sensor may help the driver to drive
safely. Sometimes when driver feels sleepy there is a chance of accident. In
system when driver lose his grip from steering, then vibrations are given to
driver’s chair. Because of this chances
of accident reduces to some extent.
Fig 1: Block Diagram of Vehicle Movement
using Street Light Detection
Flow of the implemented system is explained with
the help of following flowcharts. Fig. 2 shows the flowchart for checking day
and night condition using LDR. Flowchart for vehicle detection is shown in Fig
initialize all the devices. After the initialization is done, check day and
night condition using LDR. As we know the LDR is Light Dependent Resistor, it
works on the internal resistance. At day time internal resistance is high and
at night time internal resistance is low. When resistance is low, make street
lighting system ON. When resistance is high make street lighting system OFF.
detection of vehicle by IR sensor, IR sensor will send signal to Raspberry pi
to turn ON street light. When the vehicle is not detected by IR sensor, the
street light will remains OFF.
Fig 2: Flowchart for checking day and night
condition using LDR
Fig 3: Flowchart for vehicle detection
In table 1, it shows an analysis and comparison about
Table 1: Analysis of recently proposed
Title of Paper
Light System based on Image Processing
LED Lamps, Raspberry pi, sensors, LDR,
Power reduction , Used to save energy
High initial cost ,No backup plan.
System for Monitoring and Controlling of Street Light using GSM Technology
At mega , GSM, LED, Raspberry Pi, Sensors, Street Light.
Use of solar panels, Flexible according to
need of user.
implementation of Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with
effective utilization of solar energy
Microcontroller ,LDR, Photoelectric sensor.
Automatic ON/OFF mechanism of street
Because of one microcontroller the
controllability and operation of street lighting is difficult.
of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting System for Smart City
PIC Microcontroller, IR Sensor, Current
Sensor, LDR, Intel Galileo Gen2.
Reduction of manpower.
Initial cost and maintenance is high .
VII. RESULTS AND
In proposed system IR sensor will detect the movement
of vehicle. When vehicle is detected by IR sensor, it will inform to control
unit i.e. Raspberry Pi about the presence of vehicle. Then Raspberry Pi will
control the switching operation of street light. To turn ON the system we have
to use LDR. LDR will check intensity of light. According to light intensity (if
it is low, then system will turn ON and if intensity is high system remains
OFF). The energy provided to whole system is solar energy with the help of
solar panels and this energy is stored in batteries. Whenever there is absence
of solar energy or failure of solar supply to the system, the main switch will give energy to whole system. To know
about the information of car, RFID card and RFID reader is used and the
information is displayed on LCD. To avoid collision ultrasonic sensor is used. When driver feels sleepy , to alert him and to
avoid accident vibrations are provided to driver’s chair.
Fig 4: Expected result
As shown in
above Fig 4, the street lights should glow after detecting vehicle or other
The project has been studied and designed using
raspberry pi. The main benefit of the present system is power saving. This
initiative will help the government to save this energy and meet the domestic
and industrial needs. In addition to energy consumption, another advantage it
provides less maintenance cost. This project is cost effective, practical, and
the safe to travel at night time. According to statistical data we can save
more electrical energy that is now consumed by the highways. We have
implemented a prototype of this system. The proposed system is especially
appropriate for street lighting in city and rural areas where the traffic is
low at night times. Independence of the power network permits to implement it
in remote areas where the classical systems are prohibitively expensive. The
system is versatile, extendable and totally adjustable to user need.
P C, Paulsy Tharakan , Hima Haridas, Ramya K , Riya Joju, Ms. Jyothis T S,”Smart
Street Light System based on Image Processing,” 2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing
Swati Rajesh Parekar , Prof. Manoj M. Dongre, “An Intelligent System for Monitoring and Controlling of
Street Light using GSM Technology,” 2015 International Conference on Information Processing (ICIP)
Vishwakarma Institute of Technology.
3 M.Abhishek ,
Syed ajram shah, K.Chetan, K.Arun kumar,”Design and implementation of
Traffic Flow based Street Light Control System with effective utilization of
solar energy,” International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance
Technology, IJSEAT, Vol 3, Issue 9 ISSN 2321-6905 September-2015
4 Parkash, Prabu
V, Dandu Rajendra ,”Internet of Things Based Intelligent Street Lighting
System for Smart City,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,
Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol.
5, Issue 5, May 2016
5 Dr. D.V.Pushpa
Latha, Dr. K.R.Sudha, Swati Devabhaktuni, “PLC
based Smart S Street Lighting
Control”, I.J.Intelligent System and Applications, 2014, 01, 64-72.
6 Raspberry Pi
Foundation, UK registered charity 1129409
Jones, Rory (5thMay 2011), Peter (3rdJune 2011), Bush, Steve (25thMay 2011), “Dongle computer solve the programming on a
Rahul, K.Haripriya, E.Sneha, “Smart
Energy Management System Based on Zigbee
Technology”, 11thMarch 2015.