A virus is simply an infective agent that consists of nucleic acids wrapped in a protein coat. They cannot grow or reproduce without a living cell. Due to the very small size, the only way to view viruses is with an electron microscope. Viruses are able to latch onto a host cell, multiply within them, and alter the DNA or RNA. The Lujo virus is classified as a a single stranded RNA virus, and is part of the Arenaviridae family, and is a known cause of a hemorrhagic fever, also known as Lassa fever in humans. The way that arenaviruses spread is through direct bodily fluid transferral and are an airborne transmitted virus. ¨Another way the virus can spread is through inhalation of feces or urine of infected rodents with Lujo.¨(Unknown, June 18, 2013) In humans, the virus is fatal, but no evidence has been shown that it is pathogenic in animals like dogs, cats, or any further livestock. Humans that are more susceptible to having this virus are field workers that are constantly in contact with rodents in the field, those in laboratories working with rodents, those in sexual contact with anyone in these fields of work, and those who come into contact with the contaminated rodent themselves. The Lujo virus is very similar to the Ebola virus, and causes hemorrhagic fever with symptoms of bleeding, vomiting, face and neck swelling, sore throat, a rash on the face, diarrhea, headache, and muscle pain. It is easily spread from person to person, and could kill many in a span of weeks. Five people were infected by the virus in Zambia and South Africa in the fall of 2008, and death occured 8-10 days after the virus was contracted. ¨What scientists have found is that the patients who had been seen to have the virus had a decline in white blood cells , along with respiratory distress and circulatory collapse, otherwise known as liver failure. ¨ (Unknown, July 2009) Once the virus enters the body, it targets several different immune cells. One of the first cells it affects are the dendritic cells, which combat when a virus enters the body by initiating the white blood cells, or T lymphocytes, that could potentially destroy other cells before the virus further. After it takes over the dendritic cells which can no longer give warning to the body and terminate the other cells, the virus is free to replicate. The way that the Lujo virus causes hemorrhagic fever is that as the virus travels through the bloodstream, macrophages, another immune cell, engulfs the virus. ¨Then, once the macrophages are infected, it releases a protein that makes small clots through the blood vessels, which reduces blood supply to vital organs.¨ (Kelly Servick Aug. 13, 2014) There are certain things that can help to treat the virus, but 4 out of 5 cases have been fatal. Maintenance of hydration and making sure plenty of fluid is getting into the patient, along with plenty of acetaminophen and pain relief is crucial, as the virus can lead to major pain within the stomach. Transfusions are sometimes necessary when the patients blood levels get low or has other complications like clotting and blood diathesis. ¨When major blood loss or other trauma occurs, shock is most likely to happen, and the patient should be constantly monitored while in the process of treatment.(Unknown, June 18,2013) Ways that humans can prevent the spread of this virus is by washing hands, using good hygiene, covering coughs, stay away from others who may be sick or sneezing, and making sure that the rodents that are being tested are only in BSL 4 laboratories, where only the strictest of rules and safety conditions are in place.