1. All people were people, however, not everyone was considered worthy of a voice under the law.• Over time has the Black, Native, and African American communities increased in human value in the eyes of the law?o Obama becoming president and establishing the thought of being one people; however, he implicitly brings up the question ‘are we really one people?’ and showed improvement over time but not complete improvement (pg 23)o Jefferson establishes the idea of everyone having human rights and yet excluding certain communities (pg 26)o Douglass’ and Lincoln’s arguments represent the mindsets that splited Americans have (white people have the right to make decisions over other people v. ALL men are created equal) (pg 29)• Over time have women and babies increased in human value in the eyes of the law?o Abigail Adams (long fight to break away from tradition and social customs and to gain certain rights like voting and education) (pg 24)o Supreme court case Roe v. Wade in 1973 (beginning of war between women’s rights to choose and babies’ rights to live) (pg 25)o Supreme court case Roe v. Wade in 1973 (for women full rights as human beings they are entitled to full control over themselves) (pg 31)• Over time have “unlawful enemy combatants” increased in human value in the of the law?o Legal response of Bush’s administration (American courts had no jurisdiction over such people, but president did) (pg 34)o Roosevelt in New jersey during 1942 (world war 2) convened a secret military tribunal of German commandos (pg 34)o Supreme court in 2004 and 2006 insisted that federal courts had power to hear pleas (pg 34)The significance of the argument is to question whether time has changed how voices are heard.2.What defines who is American with the expansive diversity of each individual, especially immigrants?• Effects of incoming immigrants on a nation’s cultureo Excessive pride in protecting the identity and customs as individuals (pg 41)o Ben Franklin (warns that increase of immigrants threatens the culture) (pg 41)• Fear of immigrationo Waves of immigrants can affect rents, wages, and job vacancies/opportunities (pg 43)o Tax increase on citizens already living in America (pg 43)• Influence of prejudice in who can be defined as an Americano Americans were defined by the color of their skin (pg 46)o Civil War (African Americans weren’t considered citizens until after the entire war ended) (pg 46)The significance of the argument is to question the attributes of being an American.3.How huge of a role should faith play in public life?• The role of faith in politicso Frist embryo decision (decision switch caused praise from the medical and scientific community while gaining hate from the religious fundamentalists) (pg 60)o Statement by Johnson that preachers were influential in democratic thinking and were the first elected officials (pg 63)o Treaty of Tripoli 1796 (asserting that the Constitution nor the United States was founded on the Christian religion) (pg 64)• The role of faith in education o Tennessee battle (teacher brought to trial for teaching evolution, court ruled in favor of faith, and evolution was taken out of textbooks and the education system, however, later on it was decided to keep classrooms completely secular) (pg 58)o “intelligent design” (biblical literalists supported the teaching that forms of life were created by God rather than evolution) (pg 60)o Committee of the Continental Congress concluded that the only kind of education the government should invest in is the kind that occurs in a secular classroom (pg 64)• The role of faith sociallyo Jerry Falwell proclamation that America was a “faith nation” (percentages of people beliefs increasing the difficulty to interact with others without causing argument) (pg 62)o Jefferson’s understanding that faith and public life are not a unity, but they are inseparable (pg 65)o Mid-nineteenth century flood of Irish Catholics resulted in sectarian riots and faith-based discrimination (prejudice) (pg 66)The significance of the argument is to inform the audience of the difficulty of separating faith and public life.4.There are instances when freedom of speech and information is obstructed in democracy, so where is the balance between privacy and public?• Limit of free speecho Sedition Act of 1798 (fines and jail term up to two years for any speech or writing that was false or against the government) (pg 83)o Lincoln limited speech through technology (ordered government officials to go through all traffic passing through the telegraph system) (pg 84)o Espionage act (illegal to write or speak of negative of American involvement in the war (pg 85)• Limit of open governmento Washington’s guerrilla strategy during Revolution depended on government secrecyo Bush authorized NSA to tap telephone calls to and from foreign numbers that seemed to be linked to possible terrorists and related suspects without warrants (pg 86)o Patriot Act (FBI access to Internet records, power to conduct domestic surveillance, authorized treasury government to create financial-intelligence gathering system, gather evidence) (pg 87)• Limit of personal privacyo “Common Sense” pamphlet was anonymous and amplified flow of information without need of personal information (pg 81)o Roosevelt during world war 2 allowed FBI director to wiretap anyone who seemed to be a pro-Nazi sympathizer and other political enemies (pg 85-6)o ECHELON monitored civilian telephone, fax, and data traffic (pg 87)The significance of the argument is to inform the audience of the ways that the American freedom of speech is limited.5.There are instances when the American government has placed limitations on the individualism of citizens. • Individualism in government o Process of developing a health care that is affordable for citizens (pg 94-6)o Gun control (government sides, limiting of spread and advocates) (pg 105)• Individualism in societyo “No man is an island” (no need to necessarily interact with society for needs-individual freedom) (pg 98)o Gun owner preferences in living situations and interactions (pg 101)• Role of community in government o Owe nothing to each other (at least not necessarily) (pg 94) o Taxes and tariffs (pg 98)o “The question has never been whether Americans would pitch in to help each other – but rather the extent to which government could require them to do so” (pg 99)The significance of this argument is to give awareness of limitations on individualism in the government and society.6.Who should determine what the law means?• Constitution determines law?o “We the people” description by Wood and Amar (idea that authority came from people themselves) (pg 111-2)o Hamilton states that constitution is more than fundamental (pg 112)o “No legislative act, therefore, contrary to the constitution can be valid” Hamilton (pg 113)• Supreme court determines law?o Hamilton states that the court has “no influence over sword or the purse” and that the final judge would the “will of the people” (pg 113)o Marbury v. Madison case (established full authority of Supreme court and its power to rule unconstitutional acts) (pg 115)• Politics determines law?o Texas (political conflict and shift in who gets what) (pg 118)o 1980 campaign (no rules, no judicial limits) (pg 119)The significance of this argument is to inform the audience of the different areas where the law is influenced.7.Is the democratization of the act of defining money possible? • Currencyo Greenspan answer to value of money (tie value of currency to gold) (pg 126)o Fort Knox (key to protecting and managing money is how stable and credit-worthy we seem to rest of world) (pg 133)o What if amount of currency is “stronger” than American dollar? (pg 134)• Inflationo Threat to democracy (pg 128)o If currency and credit are too low it could cause depression, but if too high it could cause inflation (pg 128)• Economicso If inflation calmed, “supply side” of economy would risk new investment (pg 127)o Expected greatness of dollar in markets (pg 125)o Hollings “National Debt Clock” (pg 136)o IMF (monitor currency and credit on planetary economic weather map) (pg 137)The significance of this argument is to establish definitions of money that could lead to the democratization of the act.8.Who should be in charge, the national or local government?• Local governmento Act quicker by knowing the area better (ex: NYC local cops did better than FBI during attacks on Trade Center in 1993) (pg 158)• National governmento Unable to respond quick enough causing mistakes like during Hurricane Katrina, where they failed to “build and maintain the dams, locks, and levees on the country’s ‘navigable waterways'” (pg 142)• Joint controlo 9/11 changed relationship between both governments (pg 153)The significance of this argument is to inform the audience of the positives and negatives of both governments.