1.1 operations, and has been very successful


To widen the
narrowed or the obstructed arteries using a process called as “microwave
assisted balloon angioplasty (MABA)”.

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To create scars
and destroy the diseased tissues of the heart that triggers or sustains
abnormal heart rhythms using a process called as “microwave cardiac ablation”.






                                       LITERATURE SURVEY

Balloon angioplasty :

Balloon angioplasty is also known as percutaneous
transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive endovascular procedure
to widen the narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins.
The procedure avoids cardiac bypass surgery, or other more traumatic
operations, and has been very successful at both extending and improving the
quality of life 3.


 Procedure :

Ø  A
special catheter tipped with a collapsed narrow inflatable balloon is inserted
into the artery through an incision in the neck or leg and fed through blood
vessels until it reaches the diseased arteries of the heart.

Ø  Fluid
(de-ionized water) is then pumped into the balloon, inflating it to several
times its nominal diameter.

Ø  The
enlarged tip quickly compresses the layer of plaque which is clogging the
artery and also stretches the walls of the artery, leaving a much wider opening
for blood flow.

Ø  The
balloon is then deflated and it is withdrawn along with the catheter.

Ø  Finally
the vessel puncture site is treated with vascular closure device.







1 : Balloon inserted into an artery 3



Fig 2 : Balloon angioplasty 3



Ø  Embolization or the launching of debris into the

Ø  Arterial rupture from over-inflation of a balloon
catheter or the use of an inappropriately large or stiff balloon.

Ø  Restenosis.


RF cardiac ablation :

Catheter-fed ablation or excessive heating of
tissue, destroys the region of the heart responsible for the anomalous
electrical activity. Radio frequency (RF) ablation, operates at frequencies
between 100 kHz – 10 MHz 3.



Ø  More than 1 Catheter wire is guided through the
arteries, to the site of lesion.

Ø  Mapping catheter is used to map the electrical
activities of the diseased cardiac tissue.

Ø  Later the co-axial RF system is inserted to create
scars on the diseased cardiac tissues.



  Fig 3 : RF cardiac ablation 3


Disadvantages  :

Ø  Larger lesions cannot be created by increasing the
power to the RF electrode, as this leads to tissue charring.

Ø  RF ablation (100kHz – 10MHz) is generally limited to
a depth of 0.5 cm, which is insufficient for eliminating deep diseased tissue.











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