• normal cell from cancer cells Tumor

Cancer is abnormal cell growth with the
potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body, Biomarker are Measured and evaluated
as indicator of normal biological process, pathogenic process, or
pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention, Characteristic of Ideal
biomarker expression should significantly increase in disease condition  Readily quantifiable in clinical sample It
should be economically viable Tumor marker is a Biochemical substances produced
by cancer cell or by the healthy cell It’s a Substances  found at higher level than normal level  in cancerous condition, which differentiate
the normal cell from cancer cells  Tumor
marker seen in Blood circulation, Body
cavity fluids  Cell membrane ,Cell
cytoplasm Tumor marker  classification
Tumor Specific Antigens  Specific
for single individual tumor, present only in tumor cells Ex:CEA,CA19-9,CA125
Tumor-Associated Antigens are Found with different tumor of same tissue
type Present on tumor cells and some normal cells Expressed at abnormal
concentration when presence of cancer Ex: Prostate specific antigen, Beta HCG,AFP
L3,thryglobin ,Enzyme 1st group identified as a biomarker  Hormone used to detect and monitor the
cancer Onco-fetal protein AFP,CEA,PSA, using anti-sera against cancer tissue cell
surface antigen are CA 125,CA15-3,CA19-9 Blood group Ag using monoclonal
antibody detect cancer cell according to site tumor marker classification as Biochemical
/serological marker-detected in blood or body fluids, histochemical/ tissue
marker- in tissue by immunological test diagnostic marker, prognostic marker/
predictive marker, therapeutic marker clinical use Screening, diagnosis, prognostic predictor  clinical
staging of the cancerous condition
for monitoring during treatment early
not be very costly, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, simple to
use CEA -Lung, breast, Colorectal
cancer, AFP- Hepato cellular carcinoma,
Germ cell tumor, HCG – Germinal  cell tumor of 
testis, Ovarian adenocarcinoma, Hepatoma, chorio carcinoma, CA 125- Ovarian carcinoma, calcitonin- Medullary thyroid cancer, CA15-3/ CA27.29- Breast cancer,
Liver, colon, ovarian endometrial cancer, Prostate specific antigen -Prostate
cancer, Thyroglobulin-Thyroid cancer, 21-Gene signature(oncotype-Dx),70-Gene signature(mammaprint),Estrogen
receptor/ progesterone receptor- breast, Cytokeratin  fragments21-1- Non small cell Lung
cancer,breast cancer, Insulin-Insulinoma(beta cell tumor),Cortisol/ACTH- Equine pars intermedia adenoma, adreno cortical tumor, Sex steroid
hormone- Adeno carcinoma, Methods
of detection of tumor marker are immunological Immuno histochemistry, Radioimmuno
assay,ELISA, Cytogenetic analysis
– Fluorescent insitu hybridization,Spectral karyotyping,Comparative genomic
hybridization, Genetic analysis,proteomics- Surface  enhanced laser desorption/ionization,
antibodies to a dye, The immunoreactivity
between the tissue specimens and antibodies can be visualized with the light
microscope, commonly used to characterize tumors of epithelial origin are
antibodies directed against the cytokeratin intermediate
filaments,Epithelium-Specific cytokeratins used as diagnostic markers that
detect change in cytokeratin expression as a consequence,Cytokeratin 6 is
present in all epithelial skin tumors Cytokeratin immunostaining – used to
detect micro-metastases in lymph nodes of dogs with mammary gland carcinoma,
Mesenchyme tumor markers are Vimentin-Non-muscle
Sarcomas,rhabdomyosarcomas.Desmin- canine leiomyomas, Leiomyosarcomas,Canine hemangiopericytoma.Fibrillary Acid Protein- glioblastoma,Proliferation
marker are Ki-67- prognostic
significance in canine mammary gland tumors, soft tissue sarcomas  and
melanoma, During interphase 
the ki-67 antigen detected  with
in the cell nucleus. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen- estimate tumor proliferation rate. CYTOGENETICS structural
and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes G-banded chromosomes,other
cytogenetic banding techniques, molecular cytogenetics: fluorescent in situ
hybridization (FISH),comparative genomic hybridization (CGH),proteomics,genomics,metabolomics- fucosylated
proteins, including CD44 and E-selectin-elevated in dogs with lymphoma With the
completion of the sequencing of the canine genome, a microarray is being
developed to study the changes in tumor gene expression in canine
tumors.Methods of discovery:genomic approach:Northern blot-RNA sequencing,Gene
expression technique,DNA micro array.Protomic approach:Tissue micro array,Antibody
array,2D PAGE. Metabolomic approach: 
Analysing metabolic response to drug or disease.Lipidomic approach:analysis
of lipids.


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